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Research Short inter-pregnancy interval: why is it still high among women in Dar es Salaam? Images in clinical medicine Basic physical exam skills versus technology: a case of undiagnosed scleroderma PAMJ. Research Factors impacting on diabetes knowledge, medication adherence and glycemic control among adult diabetics visiting a county teaching and referral hospital in Kenya: a cross-sectional study PAMJ.

Research Access barriers to maternal healthcare services in selected hard-to-reach areas of Zambia: a mixed methods design PAMJ. Letter to the editors Reticulocyte count: a simple test but tricky interpretation! Published 01 Sep Robert Davis. Case report Diagnosis and management of a urethral prolapse in a 6-year-old girl: a case report PAMJ. Research Tocophobia experience and its impact on birth choices among Nigerian women: a qualitative exploratory study PAMJ.

Research Elucidation of potential challenges and prospects for regional tuberculosis interventions in East and Horn of Africa: a cross-sectional program assessment PAMJ. Case report Asymptomatic auto amputation of ovary and fallopian tube in a 2 days newborn: a case report PAMJ. Published 25 Aug Alphonce Nsabi Simbila. Research Clinical and histopathological features of breast tumors in women: a cross-sectional study at three hospitals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia PAMJ. Research Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practices among dental practitioners on methods of infection control while carrying out dental procedures during novel coronavirus COVID pandemic PAMJ.

Research Late antenatal care initiation and its contributors among pregnant women at selected public health institutions in Southwest Ethiopia PAMJ. Images in clinical medicine Massive intraventricular hemorrhage caused by giant intracranial aneurysms PAMJ. Research Over-nutrition and associated factors among 20 to year-old women in Uganda: evidence from the Uganda demographic health survey PAMJ. Case report Small bowel metastases from a testicular choriocarcinoma revealed by gastrointestinal bleeding: a case report PAMJ.

Images in clinical medicine Polydactyly and associated joint dysfunction for left foot: a quintessence case PAMJ. Case report Isolated poorly differentiated cancer insular in a thyroglossal cyst: a case report PAMJ. Research Coping strategies of caregivers of persons with a disability attending a special education Center in Abakaliki, Southeast Nigeria: a cross-sectional study PAMJ. Case report Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease with intense nephrotic syndrome: a new case report PAMJ.

Opinion Improving child health care in Botswana: what can be done? Case report Rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumor: an unusual presentation of an uncommon pathology a case report PAMJ. Published 10 Aug Yassin Rekhif. Research Pregnant women perceptions regarding their husbands and in-laws' support during pregnancy: a qualitative study PAMJ. Case report Systemic sclerosis manifesting as intractable gastro-oesophageal reflux and diarrhoea: a case report from Kenya PAMJ.

Case report A rare presentation of ectopic thyroid tissue in the submandibular region: a case report PAMJ. Research Knowledge, beliefs and perceptions of religious leaders on modern contraceptive use in Burkina Faso: a qualitative study PAMJ. Case report Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis case series in twins and first cousins: genes, feeding patterns or both? Case report Catheter-related bloodstream infection due to Acinetobacter ursingii in a hemodialysis patient: case report and literature review PAMJ.

Research Determinants of glycaemic control among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Northern State of Kedah, Malaysia: a cross-sectional analysis of 5 years national diabetes registry PAMJ. Research Vaccine coverage, timeliness and delay estimated from regional and national cross-sectional surveys in Ethiopia, PAMJ. Research Epidemiological and clinical profile of hypertensive octogenarian patients and factors associated with uncontrolled hypertension: observational study of patients PAMJ.

Research Awareness, knowledge and screening for cervical cancer among women of a faith-based organization in Nigeria PAMJ. Case series JAK2 p. Research The role of carcinoembryonic antigen as an assessment tool for predicting disease severity among patients with colorectal cancer in resource-poor setting of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa PAMJ. Research Anti-hypertensive medication access and affordability and their association with blood pressure control at a teaching hospital in Ghana PAMJ.

Research Epidemiological and clinical profile, and survival of patients followed for breast cancer between and at the Yaounde General Hospital, Cameroon PAMJ. Review Cardiac manifestations of the coronavirus disease a review of pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment PAMJ.

Research Surgical management of benign prostate hyperplasia in Nigeria: open prostatectomy versus transurethral resection of the prostate PAMJ. Case report Granulomatosis with polyangiitis and neurofibromatosis type 1: a fortuitous association? Images in clinical medicine Osteoblastoma in the parietal bone in elderly: rare tumor in the calvarium PAMJ.

Published 29 Jun Hassen Ben Ghezala. Published 29 Jun Augustine Oghenewyin Takure. Research Knowledge of malaria control and attitudes towards community involvement among female community volunteers: effect of capacity building in a rural community, southeast Nigeria PAMJ. Published 25 Jun Grant Murewanhema. Research High prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a hospital-based cross-sectional study in Southwestern Uganda PAMJ.

Review Variation in pulmonary function tests among children with sickle cell anemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis PAMJ. Research Prevalence and factors associated with cancellation and deferment of elective surgical cases at a rural private tertiary hospital in Western Uganda: a cross-sectional study PAMJ.

Research Early pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain and perinatal outcome in an obstetric population in Lagos, Nigeria PAMJ. Research Utility of ultrasound guided versus conventional fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosing breast malignancies among patients with palpable breast lumps at Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza Tanzania PAMJ.

Research An year trend of rubella incidence cases reported in the measles case-based surveillance system, Ghana PAMJ. Research Predictors of mortality and treatment success of multi-drug resistant and Rifampicin resistant tuberculosis in Zimbabwe: a retrospective cohort analysis of patients initiated on treatment during to PAMJ. Letter to the editors Is it time to move to systematic antithrombotic prophylaxis or therapy for all patients with COVID disease?

Research Definitive surgical femur fracture fixation in Northern Tanzania: implications of cost, payment method and payment status PAMJ. Case report A case of meningitis due to Achromobacter xylosoxidans in a child with a polymalformative syndrome: a case report PAMJ. Case report Ruptured intraventricular tuberculous brain abscess mimicking cystic neoplasm: a case report PAMJ. Images in clinical medicine Newborn with massive right eye proptosis revealing quintessence cystic orbital teratoma PAMJ.

Research Intraocular pressure fluctuation following intravitreal dexamethasone implant and incidence of secondary ocular hypertension: a Zambian perspective PAMJ. Research Knowledge, attitudes, and decision making towards prenatal testing among antenatal clinic attendees in Lagos University Teaching Hospital: an institution-based cross-sectional study PAMJ. Published 03 Jun Choolwe Muzyamba. Case report Multicorrection Goldenhar syndrome facio-auriculo-vertebral dysplasia : a rare follow up case of 12 years old female PAMJ.

Research Is nutritional status associated with depression? Research Evaluation of the partnership between international non-governmental organizations and the State in the health sector in Mozambique PAMJ. Research The relationship of serum lipid profiles and obesity with the severity of carpal tunnel syndrome PAMJ. Research Preventive health care services utilization and its associated factors among older adults in rural communities in Anambra State, Nigeria PAMJ.

Images in clinical medicine Posterior sternoclavicular joint dislocation, a rare but "dangerous" injury PAMJ. Case report Human papillomavirus-related multiphenotypic sinonasal carcinoma: a clinico-pathological dilemma case report PAMJ. Case report Hyperreactio luteinalis incidentally found in the second trimester of pregnancy with normal hCG levels: a case report PAMJ. Research Modelling mortality within 28 days among preterm infants at a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, Zambia: a retrospective review of hospital-based records PAMJ.

Research The awareness, acceptability and uptake of cervical cancer vaccination services among female secondary school teachers in Enugu, Nigeria: a cross-sectional study PAMJ. Research Pattern of serum bilirubin changes following double volume exchange blood transfusion in neonates at a tertiary health facility in Nigeria PAMJ. Commentary Atrial fibrillation and obstructive sleep apnea in African populations: uncovering a neglected association PAMJ. Published 20 May Jean Jacques Noubiap.

Research Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder among adolescents in school and its impact on their well-being: a cross-sectional study PAMJ. Case report A case report of ruptured ectopic pregnancy plus massive hemoperitoneum on a heterotrophic pregnancy in a resource-poor setting, Mbengwi, Cameroon PAMJ. Research Factors associated with birth preparedness and complication readiness among pregnant women attending government health facilities in the Bamenda Health District, Cameroon PAMJ.

Case report Co-existence of severe coarctation of the aorta and aortic valve stenosis in adulthood: a case report PAMJ. Case report Fortuitous discovery of an anomalous connection of the coronary arteries during an urgent coronary angiography: a case report PAMJ. Images in clinical medicine A giant spleen with multiple cysts: a rare case of isolated splenic hemangiomatosis PAMJ. Published 17 May Brahim Admou. Published 13 May Antarini Antarini.

Research Effectiveness of preoperative tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during caesarean section at Aminu Kano teaching Hospital, Kano: a randomized controlled trial PAMJ. Case report Higher than recommend dosage of sublingual isosorbide dinitrate for treating angina pectoris: a case report and review of the literature PAMJ. Case report An uncommon presentation of COVID concomitant acute pulmonary embolism, spontaneous tension pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema: a case report PAMJ.

Research von Willebrand factor activity and activated partial thromboplastin time as proxy biomarkers for coagulopathies in women with menorrhagia in Zambia: a case-control study PAMJ. Research Descriptive analysis of esophageal cancer in Zambia using the cancer disease hospital database: young age, late stage at presentation PAMJ. Images in clinical medicine A 57 years old male with giant retroperitoneal mass, lymphocytosis and anemia PAMJ.

Case report A case report of pneumonia due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria in an immunocompetent patient PAMJ. Research Unintentional falls among children in rural Ghana and associated factors: a cluster-randomized, population-based household survey PAMJ. Case series Decompressive craniectomy: indications and results of 24 cases at the neurosurgery clinic of Fann university hospital of Dakar PAMJ. Case report Choledochal cyst and aberrant biliary configuration along with situs inversus totalis: a case report PAMJ.

Research The relationship between asthma control and health-related quality of life in asthma and the role of atopy: a cross-sectional study of Nigerian adult asthmatics PAMJ. Research Mental health capacity building in Mali by training rural general practitioners and raising community awareness PAMJ. Published 20 Apr Camillo Lamanna.

Research Common bacteria in sputum or gastric lavage of patients presenting with signs and symptoms of lower respiratory tract infections PAMJ. Research A comparative analysis of the availability of family planning services in the social franchise and non-franchise private health facilities in Kajiado County, Kenya PAMJ. Research Evaluation of hard and soft tissue changes around implant in partially edentulous patients: a aclinico-radiographic study PAMJ.

Images in clinical medicine Cardiac compression due to a large peri-prosthetic aneurysm of the descending aorta PAMJ. Published 14 Apr Fisseha Shiferie. Research Knowledge, attitude and practice of kangaroo mother care among mothers in the neonatal wards of a tertiary care center PAMJ.

Research Association between latent tuberculosis and ischemic heart disease: a hospital-based cross-sectional study from Saudi Arabia PAMJ. Pan Afr Med J. Published 14 Apr Sabri Selcuk Atamanalp. Case report Cerebral nocardiosis with osteomyelitis of skull vault complicating a primary neck lesion in an immunocompetent patient: a case report PAMJ. Research Neuropsychological and behavioral disorders, functional outcomes and quality of life in traumatic brain injury victims PAMJ.

Perspectives Vaccination hesitancy among women of reproductive age in resource-challenged settings: a cause for public health concern PAMJ. Published 07 Apr Grant Murewanhema. Images in clinical medicine Recurrence of thyroglossal cyst: on the tongue! Case report Anomalous origin of right coronary artery with interarterial course revealed by effort angina: case report PAMJ. Case report Disseminated intravascular coagulation type of amniotic fluid embolism: a challenging case report with favorable outcome PAMJ.

Study protocol Improving work and employment opportunities for women with psychosocial disabilities: an action research protocol PAMJ. Research Cardiovascular risk factors among patients with human immunodeficiency viral infection at a tertiary hospital in Ghana: a cross-sectional study PAMJ. Research Knowledge, attitudes and practices towards menopause among Congolese middle-aged and postmenopausal women PAMJ.

Research Magnitude and associated factors of contrast induced nephropathy among patients undergoing coronary angiography and interventions at a cardiac referral hospital in Tanzania - a cross-sectional study PAMJ. Case report Case report of an acute myocardial infarction complicated by coronary spasm in a patient with chronic systemic lupus erythematosus PAMJ.

Research Clinical and biochemical correlates of hypogonadism in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus PAMJ. Research Determinants, reasons for choice and willingness to recommend birthing facility among mothers in public and private health facilities in Ebonyi, Nigeria PAMJ. Research Low level of community readiness prevails in rural northwest Ethiopia for the promotion of institutional delivery PAMJ.

Images in clinical medicine Descending necrotising fasciitis of head and neck secondary to insect bite: report of a rare case PAMJ. Published 16 Mar Carlo Emanuele Caresia. Public health perspective PAMJ. Case report Successful conservative management of a spontaneous intraperitoneal urinary bladder rupture secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia: a case report PAMJ.

Images in clinical medicine Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of hard palate: a lesion of extreme rarity PAMJ. Symeonidis, Chrysovalantis Toutziaris, Georgios Dimitriadis. Research Pathogens associated with acute diarrhea, and comorbidity with malaria among children under five years old in rural Burkina Faso PAMJ.

Research The magnitude and determinants of antepartum depression among women attending antenatal clinic at a tertiary hospital, in Mwanza Tanzania: a cross-sectional study PAMJ. Research Quality of vital sign monitoring during obstetric hospitalizations at a regional referral and teaching hospital in Uganda: an opportunity for improvement PAMJ.

Case report Unusual retrorectal ganglioneuroma: a case report of laparoscopic assisted approach PAMJ. Corrigendum Corrigendum: Laina Ndapewa Angula et al. External auditory canal haemorrhage as the first sign of internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm, a rare case: a case report doi: Case report Toxic epidermal necrolysis-like acute cutaneous lupus erythematosus: two cases report PAMJ. Case report Synchronous volvulus of the transverse and sigmoid colon: a rare case of large bowel obstruction PAMJ.

Research When it is available, will we take it? Case report Laparoscopic-assisted excision of a huge polycystic omental lymphangioma in a 3 year old patient presenting with acute abdomen: case report and review PAMJ. Research In vitro antifungal susceptibility of yeasts and molds isolated from sputum of tuberculosis relapse and retreatment patients PAMJ.

About a case and literature review PAMJ. Research Performance of quality improvement teams and associated factors in selected regional referral hospitals in Tanzania: a cross-sectional study PAMJ. Case report Small residual patent ductus arteriosus after surgical ligation in young adult: to close or not to close - a dilemmatic case report PAMJ. Case report Diverticular disease of the small bowel: a rare cause of the duodenojejunal flexure obstruction a case report PAMJ. Research Magnitude and risk of neonatal death in neonatal intensive care unit at referral hospital in Godeo Zone: a prospective cohort study PAMJ.

Research Prise en charge des larges fistules bilio-kystiques lors de la chirurgie conservatrice du kyste hydatique du foie PAMJ. Research Knowledge, attitudes, practice and barriers of physicians to provide tobacco dependence treatment: a cluster analysis PAMJ. Research Assessing the prevalence and effect of adverse drug reactions among patients receiving first line anti-tubercular medicines in the Tamale Teaching Hospital, Ghana PAMJ.

Research The first biological choice in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: data from the Moroccan register of biotherapies PAMJ. Images in clinical medicine Mitral shifting in arythmia complicated with bilateral renal infarction PAMJ.

Case report Isolated renal hydatid disease: laparoscopic approach to an uncommon entity case report PAMJ. Research The clinical and endoscopic aspects of peptic ulcers secondary to the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs of various origins PAMJ. Research Pleurodesis with povidone iodine in patients with malignant pleural effusion in a tertiary center in Nigeria PAMJ. Case report Orbital inflammatory disease secondary to epidemic keratoconjunctivitis in an adult patient: case report PAMJ.

Published 12 Feb Temiloluwa Moyosoreoluwa Abikoye. Research Implementation of integrated supportive supervision in the context of coronavirus 19 pandemic: its effects on routine immunization and vaccine preventable surveillance diseases indicators in the East and Southern African countries PAMJ. Research Use of geographic information systems web mapping application to support active case search to guide public health and social measures in the context of COVID in Zimbabwe: a preliminary report to guide replication of methods in similar resource settings PAMJ.

Research Exposure to parental and sibling smoking and future intentions to smoke among years old school age children in Saudi Arabia PAMJ. Research Assessment of hospitalized patients awareness of their rights: a cross-sectional descriptive study PAMJ. Research Diagnostic yield and therapeutic outcome of hysteroscopy in women with infertility in a referral clinical setting: a Port Harcourt, Nigeria experience PAMJ. Corrigendum Corrigendum: Meryem Lemsanni et al. Case report Right sided Bochdalek diaphragmatic hernia appeared as a life-threatening event in an infant: a case report PAMJ.

Research Clinicopathological and ultrasound features of endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women: a retrospective study in a single institute in South Korea PAMJ. A case report PAMJ. Case report Management and outcome of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy in pregnant women: a case report PAMJ.

Case report Emergency embolization for breast pseudoaneurysm following vacuum-assisted biopsy: a case report PAMJ. Research The positive effect of eugenol on acute pancreatic tissue injury: a rat experimental model PAMJ. Published 05 Feb Grant Murewanhema. Research Les stomies digestives: quel impact professionnel? Case report Malignant nodular melanoma of the vulva: a rare and aggressive tumour of the female genital tract case report PAMJ.

Published 03 Feb Jean Jacques Noubiap. Commentary Cou Cou, flying fish and a whole exome please Case report A mass mimicking pancreatic adenocarcinoma, should hepatobiliary surgeons keep it in mind? Research Hypercholesterolemia and related risk factors in a cohort of patients with diabetes and hypertension in Maputo, Mozambique PAMJ. Research Emergency department utilization for sickle cell disease in St.

Research Factors influencing maternal health choices among women of reproductive age in Hausa communities in Ibadan, Nigeria: an exploratory study PAMJ. Research Blunt trauma to abdominal solid organs: an experience of non-operative management at a rural hospital in Zambia PAMJ.

Published 27 Jan Sergiy Karachentsev. Research Prevalence and prognosis of molecular phenotypes in breast cancer patients by age: a population-based retrospective cohort study in western Algeria PAMJ. Research Outcomes of closed interlocking intramedullary nailing of the tibia without fluoroscopy in resource-limited settings: experience from two hospitals in Cameroon PAMJ.

Case report Adipsic hypernatremia in a young sudanese child, challenges in a limited-resource setting: a case report PAMJ. Short communication Estimate cost of providing methadone maintenance treatment at a methadone clinic in Nairobi Kenya: direct costs PAMJ.

Research The effect of umbilical cord cleansing with chlorhexidine gel on neonatal mortality among the community births in South Sudan: a quasi-experimental study PAMJ. Research Assessment of occupational health and safety practices at government mortuaries in Gauteng Province: a cross-sectional study PAMJ. Commentary Suicide epidemic in Malawi: what can we do? Images in clinical medicine Bilateral polyotia: case of a rare and atypical congenital malformation in a three-month-old infant PAMJ.

Research Assessment of delayed tuberculosis diagnosis preceding diagnostic confirmation among tuberculosis patients attending Isiolo county level four hospital, Kenya PAMJ. Research A review of computed tomography patterns of metastatic breast cancer patients undergoing treatment at a private oncology centre in Ghana PAMJ. Case report Stercoral perforation of the colon: a mortal consequence of chronic constipation in the elderly a case report PAMJ.

Research Left ventricular myocardial function in hemodialysis patients: the effects of preload decrease in conventional, Doppler and speckle tracking echocardiography parameters PAMJ. Research Human papillomavirus, gene mutation and estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer: a cross-sectional study PAMJ.

Research Characterization of high risk human papilloma virus genotypes associated with oropharyngeal cancers in a Nigerian population PAMJ. Review Zoonotic and reverse zoonotic transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2: a review and implications for Africa PAMJ. Research Assessing baseline knowledge and practices of injection safety among primary health care workers in Cross River State, Nigeria: a cross-sectional urban-rural comparative study PAMJ.

Research Myocardial performance after coronary re-implantation in pediatric patients assessed with conventional echocardiographic and 2D-speckle tracking analysis: a case-control study PAMJ. Published 13 Jan Grant Murewanhema. Research Illicit substances identified in the urine of Case report A giant fibroadenoma in a mature woman: diagnosis and treatment in a limited resource environment a case report PAMJ.

Published 07 Jan Mary Eyram Ashinyo. Case report Febrile neutropenia following with single-low-dose methotrexate for the treatment of ectopic pregnancy: a case presentation PAMJ. Published 07 Jan Burak Bayraktar. Case report About a rare cause of calf pain in an athlete: the popliteal artery entrapment syndrome a case report PAMJ.

Research Distribution of variations in anatomy of the circle of Willis: results of a cadaveric study of the Malawian population and review of literature PAMJ. Short communication Clinical indications for total abdominal hysterectomy among women seen in Dar es Salaam regional referral hospitals, Tanzania: a prospective, observational hospital-based study PAMJ. Images in clinical medicine Common hepatic artery arises from superior mesenteric artery: bipode celiac trunk PAMJ. Case report An unusual cause of a complete heart block in a young healthy man!

Research Urological activity at the time of COVID pandemic: is there any difference between public and private field? Case report Missed gallstones in the abdominal wall: complication of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy PAMJ. Letter to the editors How are newborns fed in their first day of life in Morocco? Research Identifying and quantifying the factors associated with cholera-related death during the outbreak in Nigeria PAMJ.

Research The prevalence of denture related mucosa lesions among patients managed in a Nigerian teaching hospital PAMJ. Research Socio-economic and demographic determinants of non-communicable diseases in Kenya: a secondary analysis of the Kenya stepwise survey PAMJ. Case report 1p36 deletion syndrome: first case report in Morocco detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization PAMJ. Case report Giant cardiac myxoma in a patient with thrombocytopenia: is there a physiopathologic link?

Published 14 Dec Jean Jacques Noubiap. Research Optimal parity cut-off values for predicting postpartum hemorrhage in vaginal deliveries and cesarean sections PAMJ. Research Hepatitis C viral load and genotypes among Nigerian subjects with chronic infection and implication for patient management: a retrospective review of data PAMJ.

Case report Small bowel obstruction due to congenital adhesion bands during pregnancy: a case report PAMJ. Case report Traumatic retroclival subdural hematoma: case report and a review of the literature PAMJ.

Research Adequacy of blood pressure control and management patterns among hypertensive adult patients attending a sub-county hospital in central Kenya: a cross-sectional study PAMJ. Case report Clinical stage I synchronous bilateral testicular germ cell tumor with different histopathology: a case report PAMJ. Case report Deciduosis of the appendix: a rare cause of acute abdomen during pregnancy: a case report PAMJ.

Research Risk factors associated with under nutrition among children aged months in Ngorongoro, Arusha region, Tanzania: a case-control study, PAMJ. Research A comparative assessment of cold chain management using the outbreak of circulating vaccine-derived polio virus type 2 as a surrogate marker in Oyo State, Nigeria PAMJ.

Brief Changes in sexual experiences and sexual satisfaction during pregnancy: data from a Greek secondary hospital PAMJ. Research Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus-1 drug-resistant mutations among adults on first- and second-line antiretroviral therapy in a resource-limited health facility in Busia County, Kenya PAMJ.

Perspectives Oral cancer: a major and growing public health problem towards a national policy of prevention and early detection in Tunisia PAMJ. Research In-silico nucleotide and protein analyses of S-gene region in selected zoonotic coronaviruses reveal conserved domains and evolutionary emergence with trajectory course of viral entry from SARS-CoV-2 genomic data PAMJ. Published 26 Nov Nourdine Attiya. Published 26 Nov Petros Ioannou. Case report Untypical symptoms for rather uncommon surgical entities: report of two rare cases of secondary intussusception in children a case report PAMJ.

Case report Nicolau syndrome following intramuscular benzathine penicillin injection: a case report PAMJ. Research What caused neonatal deaths in Senegal in ? Retraction Retraction: "The effects of HIV self-testing kits in increasing uptake of male partner testing among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Kenya: a randomized controlled trial The Pan African Medical Journal.

Research Individual awareness and treatment effectiveness of hypertension among older adults in Ghana: evidence from the World Health Organization study of global ageing and adult health wave 2 PAMJ. Images in clinical medicine This is how breast cancer should not be managed!

Case report Metastasis to the pancreas: a rare site for secondary malignancy of breast cancer: a case report PAMJ. Research Nutritional risk markers among stroke out-patients at the neurology clinic of a teaching hospital in Ghana PAMJ. Case report Conservative esthetic management of post orthodontic treatment discolored tooth with calcified canal: a case report PAMJ. Research Prevalence of excess body weight and associated factors among secondary school adolescent girls in northern Tanzania: a cross-sectional study PAMJ.

Images in clinical medicine High-output cardiac failure due to multiple femoral arteriovenous fistulae PAMJ. Letter to the editors Rollout of dolutegravir-based antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa and its public health implications PAMJ.

Short communication A 0. Published 16 Nov Mat Lowe. Research Prevalence and predictors of susceptibility and future intention to smoke cigarettes among school-going adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria PAMJ. Research Geriatric syndromes in an urban elderly population in Cameroon: a focus on disability, sarcopenia and cognitive impairment PAMJ.

Case report Concomitant primary hyperparathyroidism and systemic lupus erythematosus: coincidence or not? A new case report PAMJ. Case report Concurrent ruptured spontaneous heterotopic pregnancy and ruptured appendix with delayed presentation in the first trimester: a case report PAMJ.

Case report Emergency deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in a 1-year-old undergoing cardiac surgery in a Nigerian hospital - anaesthesia and critical care interventions PAMJ. Case report Treatment of auricular relapsing polychondritis in a Saudi child using only non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a case report PAMJ. Case report Successful diagnosis and management of tuberculosis verrucosa cutis using antituberculosis therapy trial approach PAMJ.

Research Decreased number of hospitalized children with severe acute lower respiratory infection after introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo PAMJ. Case report Diagnostic pitfall of a rare variant of angiomyolipoma, epithelioid angiomyolipoma - a case report PAMJ. Research Factors associated with private health facilities reporting malaria in the national health management information system in Zambia: a cross sectional study PAMJ.

Published 29 Oct Lawrence Ikamari. Images in clinical medicine Large bilateral ovarian cysts with left ovarian torsion and right dermoid cyst PAMJ. Research Risky sexual behaviours among adolescent undergraduate students in Nigeria: does social context of early adolescence matter? Case report Pseudotumoral form of schistosomiasis mimicking neuroendocrine tumor: a case report and brief review of the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal masses PAMJ.

Images in clinical medicine Challenging case of blunt vascular liver trauma: hematoma of the hepatic artery PAMJ. Research Exposure to carbon monoxide and particulate matter among cassava grits processors in the middle belt of Ghana: a cross-sectional study PAMJ. Images in clinical medicine An entity that poses continuous challenge despite treatment attempt: lymphangioleiomyomatosis PAMJ. Case report Covid infection in known epileptic and non-epileptic children: what is the place of chloroquine sulfate?

Perspectives A proposed one-stop-shop approach for the delivery of integrated oral, mental, sexual and reproductive healthcare to adolescents in Nigeria PAMJ. Case report Paediatric hypopituitarism: a case report and management challenges in a resource poor setting PAMJ.

Case report Yolk sac tumor of vagina: a rare cause of vaginal bleeding in adolescents-a case report PAMJ. Case report External auditory canal haemorrhage as the first sign of internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm, a rare case: a case report PAMJ. Research Prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum , Giardia intestinalis and molecular characterization of group A rotavirus associated with diarrhea in children below five years old in Gaborone, Botswana PAMJ. Research Prevalence and factors associated with irritable bowel syndrome among medical students in a Malaysian private university: a cross sectional study PAMJ.

Research Evaluation of nerve growth factor serum level for early detection of leprosy disability PAMJ. Letter to the editors Increased number of brought-in-dead cases with COVID is it due to poor health-seeking behaviour among the Zambian population?

Published 07 Oct Faten Limaiem. Research Comparison of mini-open versus all-arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: retrospective analysis of a single center PAMJ. Case report A large verrucous plaque on the buttocks: a case report of an atypical presentation of tuberculosis verrucosa cutis PAMJ. Case series Gastroduodenal lesions in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy associated with positive Helicobacter pylori histology in cirrhotic patients at Sikasso Hospital: prevalence study PAMJ.

Research Prescription of pharmacotherapy and blood pressure control among hypertensive outpatients in two semi-urban hospitals in Cameroon: a cross-sectional study PAMJ. Published 02 Oct Smail Kharoubi. Case study Quels patients souffrants de trouble bipolaire type I font des tentatives de suicide?

Research Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Igbo language version of the stroke-specific quality of life scale 2. Research Distribution of haemoglobin genotypes, knowledge, attitude and practices towards sickle cell disease among unmarried youths in the Buea Health District, Cameroon PAMJ. Research Blood transfusion requirements among children with severe malarial anemia: a cross-sectional study in a second level reference hospital in Burkina Faso PAMJ. Research Emergency hysterectomy in a tertiary care hospital: indications, surgical outcomes and challenges: a 2-year retrospective descriptive cross-sectional study PAMJ.

Case report Unusual clinical manifestation of seborrheic keratosis on the scalp successfully treated with topical trichloroacetic acid: an atypical case report PAMJ. Case report Vesico-appendiceal fistula secondary to adenocarcinoma of the appendix: a case report and literature review PAMJ. Research Percutaneous transhepatic biliary stent placement in the palliative management of malignant obstructive jaundice: initial experience in a tertiary center in Ghana PAMJ.

Short communication A predictive model of inappropriate use of medical tests and medications in bronchiolitis PAMJ. Research What do we know about patient-provider interactions in sub-Saharan Africa? Research Insecticide susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae s. Case report A giant ovarian mucinous tumor in a year-old postmenopausal patient with persistent abdominal pain and high serum levels of CA PAMJ. Research Knowledge of sexually transmitted infections and its associated factors among polytechnic college students in Southwest Ethiopia PAMJ.

Published 15 Sep Moreblessing Chipo Mashora. Research Anterior abdominal wall reconstruction with mesh implants: indications and limitations in a developing tropical economy PAMJ. Research Universal health insurance in Rwanda: major challenges and solutions for financial sustainability case study of Rwanda community-based health insurance part I PAMJ.

Research Prevalence and correlates of psychiatric morbidity, comorbid anxiety and depression among medical students in public and private tertiary institution in a Nigerian state: a cross-sectional analytical study PAMJ. Published 14 Sep Pushparaja Shetty. Case report Use of domestic tools to downstage the reconstructive ladder in a patient with severe crush and degloving injury: a case report PAMJ. Research Treatment outcomes and factors associated with unfavourable outcome among previously treated tuberculosis patients with isoniazid resistance in four regions of Cameroon PAMJ.

Research Multidetector computed tomography utilization in an urban sub-Saharan Africa setting: user characteristics, indications and appropriateness PAMJ. Research Cytomegalovirus in Indian systemic lupus erythematosus patients: troublemaker or onlooker? Images in clinical medicine A 77 year old man with gangrenous cholecystitis and incidental findings of multiple bilobar liver lipomatosis PAMJ.

Corrigendum Corrigendum: Giovanna Mosaico et al. Palate herpes simplex virus infection. The Pan African Medical Journal. Research Mental health stigma among university health care students in Nigeria: a cross-sectional observational study PAMJ.

Research Comparative study of clinical methods versus ultrasound methods for accurate gestational age determination in different trimesters of pregnancy, Ndop District Hospital, North west region, Cameroon PAMJ. Research The impact of nephrostomy balloon inflation volume on post percutaneous nephrolithotomy hemorrhage PAMJ. Case report Aberrant single metastasis to the elbow from primary rectal cancer: a rare presentation PAMJ. Case report Otoendoscope combined with ablation electrodes for treatment of benign tracheal stenosis caused by granulation tissue hyperplasia after tracheotomy PAMJ.

Research Elucidating challenges and solutions in the maternal healthcare, identified by medical doctors in northern South Africa: a qualitative study PAMJ. Published 31 Aug Jean Jacques Noubiap. Letter to the editors Delayed onset acute cerebral venous infarct following meningioma excision: a word of caution PAMJ. Case series Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the urinary bladder: analysis of five cases and literature review PAMJ. Case report Cardiac tamponade: an uncommon presenting feature of systemic lupus erythematosus, a case-based review PAMJ.

Case report Systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome and Hashimoto thyroiditis occurring in a patient with Niemann-Pick disease: a second case PAMJ. Research Socio-demographic, pattern of presentation and management outcome of breast cancer in a semi-urban tertiary health institution PAMJ. Published 27 Aug Akouetevi Aduayom-Ahego. Available at: [Accessed date]. Chittenden, M. Focus: 'Targetitis ails NHS. Times Online, [online]1 June. Coney, J. Daily Mail, [online] Last updated 9.

Short title with key words capitalized , which includes the year followed by the chapter number in brackets. If you need to refer to a specific section and paragraph, include the section, paragraph number and subsection. Finance Act Short title with key words capitalized.

Authorship, which may be part of the title, Year. Title, in italics if a separate element, Offically assigned number such as a Command number as it is on the document, within brackets. Royal Commission on civil liability and compensation for personal injury, Pearson Report Cmnd. London: HMSO. Select Committee on nationalised industries , Consumers and the nationalised industries: prelegislative hearings HC , House of Commons, Home Affairs Committee, The Work of the Border Force.

It is recommended that you follow accepted legal citation, which is not part of the Harvard system. For this the required elements for a reference are:. Available at:. If you have used material from archives or special collections, the required elements for a reference are:. Title of document. Brown, P. An address to the Farmer.

London: Holdbury Library. Corporate author, Year of Publication. Identifying letters and numbers and full title of Standard, Place of publication: Publisher. British Standards Institution, BS Recommendations for wiring identification. Milton Keynes: BSI. International Standards Office, Geneva: ISO. Corporate author, Year. Identifying letters and numbers and full title of Standard. BS EN Timber structures. Test methods. Racking strength and stiffness of timber frame wall panels.

Inventor name, Initials. Patent number status, if an application. Graham, C. Tableting sugar and compositions containing it. Leonard, Y. Tin can manufacture and method of sealing. Full title of conference report. Location, Date. Seoul, Republic of Korea, May New York: United Nations. Full title of conference paper. In: followed by editor or name of organisation, Full title of conference.

Brown, J. Evaluating surveys of transparent governance. National service framework for older people. London: Department of Health. Coulter, A. Making shared decision-making a reality: no decision about me, without me. London: The King's Fund. Full title of report. Title of dissertation. Official name of University.

Richmond, J. Customer expectations in the world of electronic banking: a case study of the Bank of Britain. Anglia Ruskin University. Available at [Accessed on date]. Fisher, C. The legacy of leadership - a study of leadership influence within a single organisation. University of Sheffield. Available at: [Accessed The name of the Institution where the document originates e.

It is important to check with the lecturer who has given the lecture that they are in agreement with course material being included in any Reference List. If they are in agreement, and if it is not a publicly available document, it is important to provide a copy in the Appendix of your work. The citation to the course material in your Reference List should then also refer to the Appendix.

It would also be advisable to follow up any sources mentioned in your lecture and read these for yourself. Title of item, Module Code Module title. HE Institution, unpublished. Williams, B. Guide to project management, BDS Management.

Anglia Ruskin University, unpublished. Available at: web address if available over the internet, otherwise indicate if available through WebCT, SharePoint or other virtual learning environment address. When reviewing a number of different plays it is essential to cite the title of the plays. If reviewing one play for example Twelfth Night it is not necessary to repeat the title in your citations. Published plays may contain line numbers, particularly in classic texts such as Shakespeare.

If they exist it is good practice to include the line number, but Act and Scene numbers must always be included. Title of play. Editors, Edition. Shakespeare, W. Twelfth Night. World's Classics series Warren, R. Much speculation has occurred when Malvolio imagines he might marry Olivia, "there is example for't; the Lady of the Strachy married the yeoman of the wardrobe" Shakespeare, Twelfth Night II,v, Where you have conducted an interview - using a primary source.

You are recommended to check with your Faculty Office for detailed guidance on what you may include. Where you are conducting the interview, it is important to check with the person being interviewed that they will be in agreement with a transcript of the interview being made available. Since this will not be a publicly available document, it may be included as a transcript within an Appendix in your piece of work.

Interviewee's name. Year of interview. Title of interview. Interviewed by Together with the transcript. Interviewee name, Initials. Title of Interview. Ahern, B. Interview on Morning Ireland. RCN, RCN praises health care staff as infections continue to fall. Press release, 18 June Corporate author of press release, Year.

Available at: web address [Accessed date]. Act F. When you are quoting from a sacred text e. For other sacred texts, it is important that you clearly identify the location of the text that you cite using the appropriate numbering system.

Chambers, Chambers paperback dictionary thesaurus. London: Champers Harpers Publishers Ltd. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Avaialble through: encyclopaediabritannica. Where data it extracted from a data source such as Isurv or FAME, both the source with the year of currency for that data.

More new homes. Where you have gathered and manipulated data from a data source like FAME or OECD and placed this in a table of your own making, we recommend that you give the source and year of currency, for the data, as an the intext reference and include a note to an appendix. In the appendix you can reproduce the source tables you have used to create your table and include adequate details of how you generated the table you have used in your work.

Title of program. Adobe Systems Incorporated, Adobe Air 3. Authorship or Source, Year. Title of web document or web page. If the URL appears to be exceedingly long, provide routing details which enable the reader to access the particular page via the site's homepage. You may be taken to a particular page as a result of a search you performed, or be directed from a link to another place on a website. The resultant URLs may include specific data about your method of accessing that page that is not available to your reader.

If this is the case use the homepage from which the reference can be found. NHS Evidence, National Library of Guidelines. Boots Group Plc. Corporate social responsibility. Available at: [Accessed 23 July ]. Defoe, D. The fortunes and the misfortunes of the famous Moll Flanders. Available at: [Accessed 18 November ]. Healthcare for all. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines, Hypertension in the elderly. Particular care needs to be taken if you are quoting from these as they may include personal email addresses and be from a restricted source.

Name of sender, email address, Year. Message or subject title from posting line. Date sent: Including time. Available at: URL e. Jones, P. Mobile phone developments. Schmit r. Sent Monday 7 June Available at: [Accessed 7 July ]. Copies of such correspondence should be kept, as these may need to be submitted as an appendix in an academic submission. Title of individual blog entry. Blog title, [medium] Blog posting date. Whitton, F. Conservationists are not making themselves heard.

Available at: [Accessed 23 June ]. Comment Author, Year. Blog title, [medium] Comment posting date. DGeezer, Author, Initial. Subject line, Title of Mailing List. Murrey, T. Sharing good practice, Forum for International Students.

Title of page [Facebook]. Available from: [ Accessed date]. Andrews, A. Customer Focus Group [Facebook]. Available at: [Accessed 11 November ]. Full text of tweet [Twitter]. Available at: [Date accessed]. Big Red Corporation. New products for cars [Twitter]. You may occasionally have access to a document before it is published and may therefore not be able to provide full details:.

Woolley, E. Journal of Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing. Accepted for publication December Anglia Ruskin University, Using the Cochrane Library. Cambridge: Anglia Ruskin University. Where you refer to a more informal personal communication, e. Hindle, E. O'Sullivan, S. Discussion on citation and referencing. Full title of DVD or video. Year of release. Other relevant details. Great films from the 80s: a selection of clips from Warner Brothers top films from the s.

Health for all children 3: the video. Narrated by D. Series title and episode name and number if relevant, Year of broadcast. Little Britain, Available through: Box of Broadcasts database [Accessed 12 August ]. Title of image. Beaton, C. China A mother resting her head on her sick child's pillow in the Canadian Mission Hospital in Chengtu. Dean, R. Tales from Topographic Oceans. Peeters, C. Still life of fish and lemons. Author, Year image created. Title of work. Where none of the usual details are known, such as author, date, or image title try to find the filename of the image for example by right clicking and looking at the properties of the file.

If none of the above is available begin the reference with the subject and title of the work. Map maker, Year of issue. Title of map. Map series, Sheet number, scale. Ordnance Survey, Chester and North Wales. Landranger series, Sheet , Southampton: Ordnance Survey. The required elements for Digimap are:. Map publisher origin , Year of publication. Created map title, Scale. Source [online] Available through Library website [Accessed date].

Ordinance Survey, Anglia Ruskin University: Chelmsford Campus, Google Earth version if applicable , Year data released. Image details - location, co-ordinates, elevation. Google Earth 6. Available through: [Accessed 31 August ]. Programme title, Series Title. National Gallery, Screen name of contributor, Year.

Video Title, Series Title. Mrgeorged, Top Gear The Stig revealed Full. Defra, Sustainable development: the bigger picture. Home Contact Us. About us About Us Providing cutting-edge scholarly communications to worldwide, enabling them to utilize available resources effectively Read More. Open Access News and events Contact Us. For Authors We aim to bring about a change in modern scholarly communications through the effective use of editorial and publishing polices.

Read More. Special Issues Frequently Asked Questions. Links Advanced knowledge sharing through global community… Read More. NLM ID : Volume 14, Issue About Journal The Trends in Transplantation X is a leading academic journal devoted to reporting the latest, cutting-edge research progress and findings of basic research and clinical practice in the field of transplantation. Call for Papers Transplantation journal welcomes submissions related to all relevant disciplines of transplantation from authors worldwide.

Indexed in. Aim and Scope Trends in Transplantation aims to serve as a channel of rapid communication for all those involved in the care of patients who require, or have had, organ or tissue transplants, including: kidney, intestine, liver, pancreas, islets, heart, heart valves, lung, bone marrow, cornea, skin, bone, and cartilage, viable or stored. Almalki Dr. He has published many papers related to Kidney diseases, transplantation, haemodialysis, etc.

Pamela S. In Press will be updated soon. Kidney graft survival at a year, clinical evolution and associated factors in transplant patients with pre-existing diabetes Luisa J. December Issue 3 September Issue 2 July Issue 1 How do we make the best decision to accept a pediatric donor heart? Right renal artery reconstruction with dacron graft following arterial dissection post reperfusion in a living donor renal transplant and successful reimplantation Rajeev Sharma Audrey Stokes Ashokkumar Jain Case Report-Trends-in-Transplantation TiT August 24, Early outcomes of Basiliximab administration before and after lung allograft reperfusion John P.

Is B-type natriuretic peptide clinically useful after pediatric heart transplantation? Management of heart transplant recipients with hemodynamically significant clinical rejection in the presence of antibodies against angiotensin II type 1 receptor: A retrospective study Puneet K Randhawa Mary Carmelle Philogene Melissa Jeresano Marc K.

Optimization of quality parameters for human thymic cell samples stored in liquid nitrogen Valentin P. Effect of pre-transplant anaemia on perioperative cardiovascular morbidity and graft function in renal transplant patients Ihab Abdel-Rahim Mohamed Ahmed Walaa M. Outcome after living donor liver transplantation: A comprehensive retrospective analysis of the risk factors for morbidity, mortality and graft failure in a tertiary care center Ayman Zaki Azzam Koichi Tanaka Original Article-Trends-in-Transplantation TiT October 27, Resource utilization of financially disadvantaged kidney transplant recipients Ana Mae H.

Long term graft and recipient outcome of deceased donor renal transplantation at the National Kidney and Transplant Institute Mark Javeson C. In-vivo hepatic procurement of tumor-free section followed by autotransplantation for large hepatocellular carcinoma with tumor thrombi extending into the inferior vena cava Young Seok Han Case Report-Trends-in-Transplantation TiT May 04, Small bowel transplantation in rats, A multicenter experience summarizing the pitfalls to be overcome Pablo Stringa Ane M.

Nov Issue 2 Sep Issue 1 Single lung transplantation has equivalent long term outcomes to bilateral lung transplantation in patients with pulmonary hypertension associated with advanced lung disease Walker A. Is day surgery safe in district general hospital?

A cocktail solution for the ex vivo preservation and perfusion of the lung; Shehata solution Mohamed S. Sudden death in children with cardiac allograft vasculopathy Borah J. Rat mesenchymal stem cells differentiate to endothelial cells after allotransplantation into the damaged nerve E.

Hospital based initiative to decrease readmission rates in end-stage liver disease Sheela S. Is pneumatosis intestinalis a contraindication to allogeneic hemopoietic stem cell transplantation? Biomarkers of Tolerance in Transplantation: Hope or hype? The Myth of Bioequivalence Heidi M.

Is Tolerance in Renal Transplantation Possible? Editorial J. Special Issues Cardiac Transplantation This special issue is focused on the topic of cardiac transplantation. Hematopoietic Stem cell Transplantation In this special issue of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, we invite research, comprehensive reviews, rare clinical cases, brief communications by experts in the field of Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and relevant disciplines that cover a range of topics from basic science, translational research and clinical practice.

Submit Manuscript Attach your manuscript along with cover letter in the form of word document format and send it to editor. Publication Charges Trends in Transplantation is an Open Access journal and we do not charge the end user when accessing a manuscript or any article.

Our financial goals are to: Recover capitalization costs; Produce sufficient revenue to allow for a sustainable and scalable publishing program, under continuous development; Bend the publication-charge cost downward over time.

Who will pay the APC? Corresponding author or Co-authors has to make the payment on acceptance of the article. When should I pay? How do I pay? Authors or institutions can make payments by two modes as per their convenience. Can I be eligible for wavier on APC? The waiver request will be considered on a case-by-case basis, and will be provided accordingly. Do I have to pay if my manuscript is rejected? Letter to the Editor Submitted by the Reader Supports, refutes, or adds relevant information related to a previously published article Authors correcting their own work or responding to a critique of their article by a reader s An abstract is not required.

The letter should not be divided into sections. The letter will undergo peer-review similar to other articles. Review Authors suggestion Topic is relatively broad in scope Review article should be on topic which is of interest to a wide readership. Review articles should have a comprehensive coverage of a topic in clear and lucid language with representative figures and images.

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The cases should be unusual and give unique perspective on disease presentation, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and treatment side effects. Case series must be accompanied with comprehensive review of literature. Abstract is required. Case Reports Case Reports must provide an original description of previously unreported entity or report new presentation of a known disease or a new perspective of case which poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

Case Reports should include a comprehensive review of similar cases and state the differences between present case and previous cases. Case reports should be accompanied by clinical, radiological and pathologic images. Case in Images For 'Case in Images' section , the manuscript must meet all the criteria of a case report given above with the difference that figures can be submitted for this section Case Report can have maximum of 7 figures. Clinical Images Clinical Images section includes clinical images, diagnostic or investigative images especially images in radiology, endoscopy, pathology and cytopathology.

The images should be accompanied by brief history and case discussion followed by conclusion. Abstract is not required. The Clinical Images will undergo peer review similar to other articles. Policy Bridge Articles focused on bridging scientific knowledge with policy issues, policy options, or policy analysis. Conference Proceedings This section includes the papers presented in the conference usually published in a volume.

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Conclusions and discussions if any are presented in clearly explained avoiding ambiguity and are supported by the data. Importance of research in the respective field. Feature Prospective, Broad area of research, Rigorous methodology, Adequate evidence for its conclusions. The previous literature has been treated fairly and adequately. The research meets all applicable standards for the ethics of experimentation and research integrity.

The authors have complied with applicable reporting standards and guidelines for data publication. Avoid presenting your results with raw or unprocessed data. The submission is written clearly and unambiguously in Standard English. Submission Components Manuscripts should be submitted by one of the author, who is listed in the manuscript while submitting the manuscript files through EMS, make sure your files are in Word or PDF.

Our review process follows these steps: All manuscripts submitted to OA Text Journals are received by the Editorial Assistant who examines all files including cover letter, text files, images and figures. If the files meet the technical and formatting of OA Text, as given in the Instructions for Authors, authors are sent an acknowledgement of the manuscript along with a Manuscript ID number.

After assigning the Manuscript ID number, the manuscript is sent for editorial review and external peer review. Authors are requested to quote the manuscript ID number in all correspondences with OA Text journals. If the manuscript files do not meet the technical requirements of the journal, authors are sent detailed instructions about the changes required in the manuscript and asked to resubmit the files to the Editorial Office, using "Submit Revision" page.

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The manuscript is usually sent to two to four expert peer reviewers. The peer reviewer's identities are kept confidential to ensure a fair and unbiased review of every manuscript. The pertinent Editor-in-Chief will review submissions to identify those that are appropriate for full review, and assign an Associate Editor to manage the review process. The Associate Editor will select reviewers, manage the review process, and will make one of the following publication recommendations to the Editor-in-Chief: Accept without revision; Invite author s to revise the submission to address specific but relatively minor concerns; Invite author s to revise the submission to address moderate to major concerns; Reject, but indicate to the author s that further work might justify a resubmission; or Reject outright.

If a revision is recommended, the Editorial Assistant will include, with her or his review, a short paragraph summarizing the most important issues raised by the reviewers for the author s to address and ask the author s to include a Response to Reviewers with their revision. In some cases the Editorial Assistant may seek further review from the original or other reviewers. The Editor-in-Chief will make the ultimate decision regarding publication, and communicate directly with the corresponding author on the results of the review process.

After acceptance, a Production Editor will perform a technical audit of the final manuscript and supporting files, to ensure that the submission will move through the production process smoothly. After the acceptance of the manuscript, it may be edited for grammar, punctuation, style and accuracy. An edited, pre-print, proof of the manuscript with all figures, table and charts included, is sent to the corresponding author for approval.

The proof will be sent as a PDF file. The authors will also be sent a proof corrections form, which the authors can use to submit any changes required in the manuscript. Please note that at this stage only the type-setting like incorrect punctuation will be corrected. It will not be possible to make any significant changes to the text or add or delete figures.

The proof need to be returned to the Editorial Office within three days 72 hours. After the correction proofs are received by the Editorial Office, the final version of the manuscript is prepared for publication. After receiving page proofs, the average time to publication is approximately four weeks. All authors include corresponding and co authors should confirm the number of authors, authorship, approval and integrity of the manuscript before submission.

In case of any differences of opinion, address the concerns of all the authors before submitting the manuscript for publication. It is unacceptable to withdraw a manuscript from a journal because it is being accepted by another journal. Before submitting the manuscript authors should carefully check the facts and data presented in the manuscripts are accurate and error-free. All authors need agree for publishing the articles on the specific journal before submission.

Unethical withdrawal Advanced stage in the editorial process, when peer reviews were near completion was unacceptable unless there are compelling reasons. Manuscript withdrawal charges The author is allowed to withdraw the manuscript without paying any withdrawal penalty, if the author s requests a withdrawal of manuscript, within 48 hours of submission.

As per the policy, we declare that the withdrawal charges are applicable in case of withdrawal. Withdrawal form If the author wish to withdraw paper from a journal, author needs to submit an " Article withdrawal Form" signed by all authors or the corresponding author of the manuscript stating the reasons for manuscript withdrawal. This permission is separate from the permission taken from the patient to publish the case. If you include text or figures that have been published elsewhere, you must obtain permission is separate from the permission taken from the patient to publish the case.

If you include text or figures that have been published elsewhere, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner s. All expenses for obtaining such permission will have to be paid by the authors s. If you are unable to pay for obtaining permission to use previously published work, we suggest that you use other work available free to refer and cite in your manuscript.

Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been first cited in the text. Mention the figure numbers in the text at the appropriate places in parenthesis before the punctuation marks. All figures should be provided as separate files. Includecolor figures wherever possible. The file name should include the figure number. Label file names as:Figure1, Figure2 etc. If multiple figures form a part of a sequence label them as Figure 1 A , Figure 1 B etc.

Figure files should have a minimum of pixels per inch ppi if in color or halftone, or at ppi if as line art. Digital scanned line drawings should have a minimum resolution of dpi. Figures containing color should be in RGB millions of colors , 8 bits per channel.

No other color space is allowed, such as CMYK, indexed, or bitmap. Save grayscale or RGB files with a depth of 8 bits per channel, not Try to keep all images separate. You do not need to combine multiple images into a single image. If it is necessary to combine multiple figures into one composite figure, figure parts should be denoted on the figure by uppercase letters A, B, C etc. Label each figure in the lower left hand corner for Figure 1 A , label figure as 'A', for Figure 1 B , label figure as 'B',without quotes.

Labels should not include the word'Figure'. The size of the letters should be large enough to be easily visible. Use font color so that letters contrast with the background. Keep letters of a consistent size in all the figures. You can use symbols, arrows or letters in the figures to indicate important areas or parts. Do not put the title of figures or explanations on the figure.

Mention them in the figure legends. If a figure has been published elsewhere, you will have to submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the materials at the time of submitting the Author Agreement Form. Please provide figure legends on a separate page with Arabic numerals corresponding to the figures.

The legend should be included in the manuscript text file immediately following the references. Give a good description of the figure. When arrows, symbols or letter are used to identify parts of figure, identify and explain each one in the legend. Give the magnification and identify the method of staining in photomicrographs. Figure legend should begin with term 'Figure' followed by figure number e.

Do not use any abbreviations unless their full forms are given excluding common abbreviations such as names of antibodies. EPS text in other fonts may be lost or render improperly, so should be converted to outlines. Create figures with a white background. Figures with a transparent background may not display well online.

Figures should be cropped to minimize surrounding white space. A 2-point white space border around each figure is recommended to prevent inadvertent cropping of content at layout. TIFF files with multiple layers are not acceptable. If you use excel to generate your graph, avoid 3D, crowded axes, colored background, strong grid etc.. Use Tahoma font size 10 maximum for all items in your graphs Title, legend, axes etc.. Submit this image for your manuscript If you plan on submitting a stereogram as one of your figures, make sure this is clearly mentioned in the caption for the figure within the manuscript.

Stereograms must be sized so that the centers of each of these images are 63 mm apart. Make sure that the stereogram figure is at the size you would like them to display. The journal reserves the right to modify, crop, rotate, reduce, or enlarge the photographs to an acceptable size. Table Preparation The table numbers should be cited at the relevant places in the text in parenthesis after the punctuation mark.

Table 1 or Tables or Tables 1,3, We impose no limit on the number of tables submitted, but we do require that all tables—main or supplemental—be well described. Good metadata are key to discoverability and usefulness. Each table should be numbered in the order of first citation in the text, using Arabic numerals, e. Table 1. You will need to send your original, editable files e.

This will reduce the likelihood of errors being introduced during production of your article. Non-editable files e. Each table should appear on separate page. A title for every table which summarizes the whole table must be given above the table. Please present table titles separately for each table, rather than including them as the first row of the table. Table notes should be separate from the titles and included underneath the table to which they apply. Tables should present new information rather than duplicating what is in the text.

Readers should be able to interpret the table without reference to the text. Tables should be self-explanatory and not duplicate the data presented in figures. Tables do not have strict dimension requirements. However, some wide tables may be printed sideways in the PDF version of the article. Very large tables may span more than one page in the PDF. When submitting multiple tables, consistency in presentation is advised where possible. Kindly prepare tables using the table function of word processing program like Microsoft Word.

Do not use spaces or table for making tables. Charts should be sent as Excel or PowerPoint files. Place explanations, comments and full form of non-standard abbreviations in footnotes below each table. If some materials have been taken from previously published literature, give the reference at the end of table caption, and include the citation in the list of references at appropriate places.

Please note that color, shading, vertical rules, and other cell borders are not compatible with our publishing requirements. Where necessary please use notes, italics, or bold text for emphasis with accompanying footnotes explaining their significance. Where superscript notes are used, the letters should follow alphabetical order from the top left of the table to the bottom right.

All statistical significance notes should be represented in the table, or deleted. Please also add notes explaining any acronyms or abbreviations in table titles or column headings. When representing information numerically, use as many decimal places as is appropriate for your purposes.

This number should be consistent throughout the column, or table if possible. The text in your table will be copy-edited to match the style of the journal. Refer to each table in the text. If you are sending tables in a separate file, insert a note in the text indicating the preferred location for each table, e. Supplemental tables referenced within the text, but not integrated into the PDF version of the article. Supplemental material provides readers with additional information that enhances the main text but is not critical to its assertions.

Requirements Tables must -be cell-based e. Tables must not: -use returns or tabs within a cell; -have color or shading; -use lines, rules, or borders; -contain spaces within cells to align text; -have vertically merged cells horizontally merged cells are fine ; -have inserted text boxes or pictures; -contain tables within tables or cells within cells; -include empty columns, rows, or cells to create spacing; -include hyperlinked text.

If your submitted table contains any of these elements, they will be returned for adjustments. Supplemental Material Submission Instructions What to Submit as Supplemental Metadata Citation In-Text Acceptable formats Deposit of Primary Data Deposition of sequence and structural data For papers reporting novel nucleic acid sequences For papers reporting novel Macromolecular structures Crystallographic data for small molecules For papers reporting novel protein sequences For papers reporting new ChIP-Seq data Microarray data Quantitative PCR Other datasets Supplemental Material Submission Instructions What to Submit as Supplemental Material Supporting material that cannot be included, and which is not essential for inclusion, in the full text of the manuscript, but would nevertheless benefit the reader.

Metadata Although we do not limit the number or type of Supplemental Material items authors may include, we do require that they provide a relevant and useful expansion of the article, and that they be as well described as are figures and tables included within the body of the article. Examples: Figure S1. Table S1. Text S1. Video S1. Animation S1. Alternative Language Abstract S1. Figures, Tables, Videos, Animations should be provided with titles should be no more than 15 words and set in bold type, using sentence case.

Supplemental material figures and tables should follow the requirements for main-text figures and tables see Figure Preparation and Table Preparation. Citation In-Text All Supplementary data MUST be referred to in the main manuscript at an appropriate point in the text, just as main text figures and tables. Acceptable formats The supplementary data should preferably be saved as one single PDF file, including all text, figures, tables and legends.

Text files Supplementary text should be submitted as text files in MS Word. Figures Supplemental figures should be submitted as separate tif, gif or jpg files at a minimum resolution of ppi, just as with main figures please see our Figure Preparation section for detailed instructions on figure preparation.

Help If you require further help or information regarding submission or preparation of Supplementary data, please info oatext. Deposition of sequence and structural data Sequence information, co-ordinates used to create molecular models described in a manuscript, and structural data must be submitted in electronic form, prior to acceptance, to the appropriate database for release no later than the date of publication of the corresponding article in the Journal.

Crystallographic data for small molecules Manuscripts reporting new three-dimensional structures of small molecules from crystallographic analysis should include a. For papers reporting novel protein sequences Protein sequences, which have been determined by direct sequencing of the protein, must be submitted to UniProt i.

Earth sciences databases recommended by Nature journals include Pangaea , the publishing network for geoscientific and environmental data; PetDB, for geochemical data of rocks on the ocean floor; and GEOROC , geochemistry of rocks from the oceans and continents. Manuscript Preparation The manuscript preparation guidelines are adapted from those developed for International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.

Use complete names for non-indexed journals Avoid citing unpublished data or manuscripts, personal communications, websites, conference papers and non-peer reviewed publications. Basic Reference Formatting The reference list appearing at the end of the article should be numbered in the order that they appear in the text. Citing References In-Text Any in-text reference should include the authorship and the year of the work. Where you are mentioning a particular part of the work, and making direct reference to this, a page reference should be included: Cormack , pp.

Author's name not cited directly in the text If you make reference to a work or piece of research without mentioning the author in the text then both the author's name and publication year are placed at the relevant point in the sentence or at the end of the sentence in brackets: Making reference to published work appears to be characteristic of writing for a professional audience Cormack, More than one author cited in text Where reference is made to more than one author in a sentence, and they are referred to directly, they are both cited: Smith and Jones have both shown Two or three authors for a work When there are two or three authors for a work, they should be noted in the text Directly using an and White and Brown in their recent research paper found Or indirectly Recent research White and Brown, suggests that Other examples using two or three authors During the mid nineties research undertaken in Luton Slater and Jones, showed that Further research Green, Harris and Dunne, showed When there are two or three authors for a work they should all be listed in the order in which their names appear in the original publication , with the name listed last preceded by an and.

Four or more authors for a work Where there are several authors four or more , only the first author should be used, followed by et al. Recent research Collins, ; Brown, ; Davies, shows that Several works by one author in different years If more than one publication from an author illustrates the same point and the works are published in different years, then the references should be cited in chronological order i.

Several works by one author in the same year If you are quoting several works published by the same author in the same year, they should be differentiated by adding a lower case letter directly, with no space, after the year for each item: Earlier research by Dunn a found that If several works published in the same year are referred to on a single occasion, or an author has made the same point in several publications, they can all be referred to by using lower case letters as above : Bloggs a; b has stated on more than one occasion that Chapter authors in edited works References to the work of an author that appears as a chapter, or part of a larger work, that is edited by someone else, should be cited within your text using the name of the contributory author not the editor of the whole work.

In his work on health information, Smith states In the reference list at the end of your document, you should include details of both the chapter author and the editor of the entire work Smith, J. RCN, in your text, providing that the full name is given at the first citing with the abbreviation in brackets: 1st citation Children in the Community. Some reports are written by specially convened groups or committees and can be cited by the name of the committee: Committee on Nursing Select Committee on Stem Cell Research Note there are some exceptions to this such as: BBC Philharmonic Orchestra BBC News where the abbreviations or initials form part of the official name.

No author If the author cannot be identified use 'Anonymous' or 'Anon' and the title of the work and date of publication. Marketing strategy Anon. Page Numbers Including the page numbers of a reference will help readers trace your sources. This is particularly important for quotations and for paraphrasing specific paragraphs in the texts: Lawrence , p.

Please note page numbers: preceded with p. Quoting portions of published text If you want to include text from a published work in your essay then the sentence s must be included within quotation marks, and may be introduced by such phrases as: the author states that " This clearly identifies the quotation as the work of someone else: "Outside the UK, the BBC World Service has provided services by direct broadcasting and re-transmission contracts by sound radio since the inauguration of the BBC Empire Service in December , and more recently by television and online.

A direct reference: Research recently carried out in the Greater Manchester area by Brown cited in Bassett, , p. Or indirectly: Brown, cited in Bassett, , p. The reference list at the end of your document should only contain works that you have read. Tables and diagrams When reproducing selected data, or copying an entire table or diagram, a reference must be made to the source.

If the source of the data is not the author's own, but obtained from another source, it becomes a secondary reference and needs to be cited as such: United Nations, cited in Smith, , p. Websites When citing material found on a website, you should identify the authorship of the website. General Format Author s. Books with one author Use the title page, not the book cover, for the reference details.

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