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They decrease in aggressiveness towards the male image, starting with a girl who, very assertively, injures the wolf, and ending with the girl who tends the injuries that others, not she, had inflicted on him.

These are adult tales, not directed towards children, and only very little information is kept from the traditional fairytale of Charles Perrault. This analogy is actually more implied than explicit in the texts. The reader who has been formed by a certain culture, that of the childhood fairytales, who has dear images of them in his heart, has certain expectations from these stories.

This fear and lack of openness goes in line with the myth—folklore distinction presented above and is visible right from the first sentence of the text. At midnight, especially on Walpurgisnacht, the Devil holds picnics in the graveyards and invites the witches; then they dig up fresh corpses, and eat them. Anyone will tell you that. Wreaths of garlic on the doors keep out the vampires. They soon find it. They stone her to death. Carter, An analogy can be made between these traditional stereotypical beliefs and the attitude towards feminists and women writers who were not encouraged at that time by their male counterparts.

The story continues by introducing abruptly, without any preparation, as if she did not matter at all, a person who is supposed to take some gifts to her grandmother. The good child does as her mother bids her [ Carter, These short lines suggest the submissive attitude that women are educated to follow and their acceptance of the situation; as Angela Dworkin would say, women transmit to one another through education, from childhood, their underprivileging, the status of inferiority to their male counterparts.

Her possession of the knife, this phallic object, seems to confer an artificial, masculine identity on her. Soon, she is not spared the advances of a wolf which comes to her, but she cuts off his forepaw with the knife. The girl takes the paw with her and continues her journey to her grandmother.

This may appear to demonstrate that men do not have the strong character that society has educated us into believing they possess. They seem to give in when attacked on a similar, aggressive, masculine ground. Yet, when analysing the scene from the perspective of the feminist tradition of which Angela Carter is a representative, such an interpretation would appear over-simplistic.

The interest is not to show how powerful men are, and not even to shift the perspective of power from men to women. This would imply switching the roles of subject—object between men and women, giving an artificial, unnecessary power to women, making them subjects in a phallic tradition, a position they could never occupy, because it was never meant for them. This proves that she is probably not mature enough to start the life of a woman responsible for her own transformation.

This means that the grandmother herself has failed to change her condition of subject and now she has condemned her granddaughter to it too. This may be a proof of the inescapable condition of woman, who will always be subjected to men and to temptations, yet maybe this is the right condition to be in, as long as you master it. This howling is an assertion of male power. The story which follows, that of the woman with two husbands, is quite strange.

This suggests the traditional relation of power and submission, in which man is the One, the subject, and the woman is the Other, the object of his power. There is an important fragment in this story, referring to the howling of the wolf: The long-drawn, wavering howl has, for all its fearful resonance, some inherent sadness in it, as if the beasts would love to be less beastly if only they knew how and never cease to mourn their own condition.

Carter, These lines represent the essence of the whole story, inviting women to take action towards bringing the relationship between themselves and men to a common ground of shared responsibility and benefit; it is like a warning for women, to make them understand that, unless they are active participants in their sexual lives, they will end up in submission to the male power. Another story before this one portrays another jealous hunter killing a wolf which transforms himself into a man and the hunter is terrified.

It is as if he had killed himself there, as if he had destroyed his own masculinity. Carter, The fragment could bring to our attention the binary opposition between the animal and the human identities that characters must shift between in order to gain their final, true identity. The fact that the last thing the old lady sees before her death is a handsome young man proves that she herself had experienced life with the wolf.

But now time has passed, she is old and she must die to make way for the young granddaughter who might manage to tame the wolf-man. When the girl gets there she is afraid at first, but, realising the situation she is in, she assumes the new responsibility, that of bringing the wolf to the original state of equality with woman. Some critics have argued she was about to be raped and, understanding the fact that she could not escape, she consented.

When they take off their human clothes and metamorphose into wolves, they give up falseness. Showlater, , When she realises that it was her image she saw in the picture, it was no longer necessary for her to be tricked, because she was an adult, ready to take a new step in her life with the Wolf-Duke; which she does, by tending his wounds after a difficult night. She is the one initiating him now, contrary to the image of the girl who had been introduced into the wolf life by the man.

She is in control now, she is the wolf, she has the power. But her power is mild, caring, it does not make him suffer, but on the contrary, it soothes him. References Carter, Angela, If we were to consider the notions of feminism and masculinity in a conflicting relationship based on action and reaction, all the actions of the former women receiving the right to vote, being accepted in what were formerly known as male-dominated areas of life and abandoning their traditional role of housewife and matriarch produce an equally important reaction, that of the male becoming disoriented, losing his power and place in society, ultimately watching the pillars of his temple of masculinity crumble all round him.

My paper will focus on this type of traditional man who is lost in a world of cultural changes as he is constructed in the works of the English novelist and essayist John Fowles. The Collector — the formulaic man? Fowles lays bare the issue of male violence as a trait of masculine power and its relation to male sexuality.

While talking about his work in an interview, Fowles mentioned the Bluebeard syndrome as the catalyst of the novel. Also, Clegg represents a model of the male behavior in general; his attitude reflects the general fixation of the male to idealize women and is representative for how male power feeds and enforces itself onto women through such an idealization.

Patriarchy is one of the main issues we come across in the book. When reading The Collector as a manifesto of patriarchal power, we not only find a definition but also learn the mechanisms of male behavior. Arguments in favor of this affirmation are brought throughout the book by both the male and the female comments.

Intelligent men must despise themselves for being like that. It rules him. This insecurity results in a desire to control and impose himself upon women. Miranda sees Clegg as a weak, cheap imitation of a man and this is what frustrates her the most.

Clegg compensates for his flaws through money. He buys Miranda the best of everything not because he is genuinely concerned about her welfare but in order to achieve financial power over her. God forbid! Be it Clegg, Nick or Miles, all the male characters Fowles creates are concerned only with themselves and how to exert power and achieve pleasure.

Here we see a romantic idealization and a desire for power, Ferdinand and Caliban come together with the same purpose, that of turning women into instruments of male gratification. He never visualized her as a living being, but most often as an image of feminine perfection, a picture he can create and achieve satisfaction from again and again.

Thus, Miranda is objectified into the image of his lust and the photograph he takes of her becomes the ultimate tribute to male power. The photographs, I used to look at them sometimes. I could take my time with them.

The violent forms into which sexual relations have been shaped, whether it be rape, pornography, prostitution, marital coercion, actual physical violence, psychological pressure or whatever else, are all constructed to embody and enforce dominantly male prerogatives. She sees Clegg, the collector, as destructive as a scientist who captures and examines a living being, with himself dominating the operation. She hates the fact that men are interested in the dominant study of an object and not in the autonomous, relational analysis based on equality.

It is this cold, hard, factual rendering of life that annoys Miranda, not only in her relationship with Clegg, but also in past relationships she mentioned in the journal. Before dying, Miranda realizes her one true fault in this whole story: the fact that she existed. His male characters are average, even plain men, both physically and psychologically. They are middle-class products, representative of their generation and even of the present-day generation of men.

They are teachers, writers or social servants who share one thing: an obsession with male power associated with blatant male anxiety. The roles they play in society are unimportant and yet not irrelevant. With their failure came the end of the secure masculine persona, anchored in reality and parading age-old patriarchal principles. Fowles tried to set out early on to expose male behavior, to find out what makes men tick.

He probably realized the answer after writing his first novel. His books are case studies and their lessons are all there for us to learn from. One of the main ideas which the novel Mantissa focuses on is related to the notion of power and how the two sexes relate to it; the author presents the forms power takes when it is exerted by men upon women in their fantasies. Wendy Holloway points out in one of her essays the fact that both men and women are equally attracted to the idea of power, attempting to inflict it upon the mate.

What is quite interesting is the way in which the two sexes understand the notion of power: women respond to the vulnerability in men with a maternal desire to nurture and heal, whereas men respond to the vulnerability in women with an urge to dominate and consume. Conclusively, what both Fowles and Holloway point out is that women see power in caring and men see power in conquering.

This fact is stated by Woodcock in her essay as well: this legacy of the social construction of masculinity continually reconstructed in the images men make of women, images which are conversely images of men themselves. They represent male passivity and that is what has to be destroyed, over and over again, and with compulsive monotony — created with the gags and hoods and the bondage and then fragmented with the power of the prick.

Moreover, he himself declared in an interview that he never intended to publish it, but was bullied by his publisher at the time. Fowles himself considered the book to be a metaphor for the growth of language, much in the line of a small and private intervention in the debate about language and literature.

And at a first glimpse one would say that this is all there is to the book. From what I have mentioned so far, this is clearly not the case, although pornography does play a big role when it comes to dissecting the male psyche and implicitly to Mantissa. These exist within a wider spectrum of representations, most notably the representation of women to men and men to themselves in relation to women.

Such general representations, advertising and so on, are part of the social power of men over women and pornography is part of the process, with its own repertoire. This reinforces my previous statement according to which, in the novel, language plays an important role in obtaining power and sexual satisfaction. The characters of Mantissa also emphasize the parodic aspect of the novel as well. The role of Nemesis in the novel is to represent a parody of radical feminism.

Thus, Mantissa can be interpreted as the meeting between the sexually incompetent Clegg and Erato, the woman he could never add to his collection, or between a female Conchis, trapped in a secluded and mysterious place, who is trying to initiate the blunt Nick into another dimension of knowledge.

Conveniently enough, the only way this powerless man can regain his identity is by having sexual intercourse with two powerful women. It is this excessive verbalization that helps produce the first part of the novel. Language also exposes the self-enclosed nature of male sexual imagination and helps create an image of the way in which men see women. It defines and contains women within the stereotypical mind of the male author.

For the greater part, the discussion between Erato and Miles is a sort of foreplay during which the participants throw taunts at each other. In the case of both Doctor Delfie and Erato, the fantasy Green builds is one based on the dominance of the woman and the submission of the man.

Despite being cast in dominant roles, Doctor Delfie and nurse Cory are rendered passive through language in order to appeal to the male reader. Out of this world. More childlike. More feminine? Easier to exploit. Just the sort of girl one would like to take home to meet mother. The reason for this is that, although the story concerning rape is being told by a woman, the accounts are being presented from a male point of view. On the one hand, the author is trapped in his imaginary world together with the beings he created and cannot escape.

On the other hand, there is the option of reconciliation put forward by the muse but vehemently declined by the author: You may take my clothes away, you may stop me leaving, you cannot change my feelings. I know. You silly thing. Then this is a ridiculous waste of time. Unless you change them yourself.

All these relationships have one thing in common: they represent struggles for power, for being the dominant element in a binary relation. References Brown, Beverly, Mantissa, London: Cape Hall, Donald, Moreover, if contemporary plays can be interpreted in more ways than one, why should traditional dramatic discourses contained within the literary canon not be reconsidered and presented through a new lens, providing a new understanding of the dramatic situations and bringing peripheral characters to the center?

A Play about a Handkerchief brings back to light a dramatic text with which the audience is presumably familiar, i. The Moor of Venice, attempting to deconstruct and reconstruct the traditional discourse and de-center the male protagonist, turning the female characters into subjects instead. In re -constructing her play, Paula Vogel plays with the Shakespearian hypotext, transforming not only the content, but also the pattern of the Renaissance tragedy, in an attempt to challenge the traditional discourse and provide her audience with a commentary on the effect of silence in the contemporary world.

In his attempt to define myth, Paul Ricoeur challenges the assumption that this only represents a false explanation for a certain event or situation. Rather, he claims, myths bear explanatory significance and contribute to our understanding of the world. Thus, myths have a symbolic function, which can change according to the cultural evolution of the society within whose boundaries they have developed Ricoeur, quoted in Coupe, 5.

Therefore, considering the contemporary postmodern context, it is possible for the playwright to provide a voice for the previously silenced female characters, who move to the center of the revised myths, pushing the former male protagonists towards the margins. Although Desdemona does appear on stage in the original play, her presence is not as overwhelming as that of the male protagonist, mostly due to the restriction characterizing her discourse.

Considering the fact that even the seldom appearing female characters were in fact meant to be played by male actors during the Renaissance, one concludes that females were virtually outcast within these performances, especially if one takes into account the typically Western metaphysics of presence which, according to Derrida, lies at the foundation of logocentrism, i. Hence, not only does this text support the further silencing of females, but it also promotes the idea of punishing the women who dare to cross the boundaries prescribed by paternal law.

Shakespeare, Act 1, Scene 3, ll. Therefore, the female figure mentioned above is subjected rather than subject to male authority, both as far as the content of the discourse is concerned, being turned into a victim of male power, and in terms of authorship. A Play about a Handkerchief. The difference in perspective can be traced starting with the titles of the plays: while Shakespeare emphasized the centrality of the male protagonist, whom he turned into an eponymous hero, Vogel disrupts the tradition and chooses to name her work after the heroine.

Moreover, Othello is never present on stage throughout the performance. His existence is only marked by the references made by the three female characters the audience is introduced to, as well as by the sound of his slapping Desdemona off-stage. In Desdemona.

A Play about a Handkerchief, Vogel presents only three characters, all females with a different social background and different perspectives. Desdemona is a seemingly promiscuous and spoiled young woman, who would rather commit adultery than be faithful to her husband.

However, by the end of the play one realizes that she has taken on various roles in order to pretend that she can enjoy freedom from the constraints of paternal and marital conventions. Bianca is an uneducated prostitute, despised by Emilia, yet appreciated by Desdemona, who sees her as a symbol of the liberated woman, capable of earning her money and thus enjoying absolute freedom.

Therefore, there are instances when their discourse centers on male sexuality, as the women are trying to improve their knowledge by sharing whatever information they have gathered so far. Desdemona and Emilia in Desdemona. Oh me, oh my — if I could find a man with just such a hoof-pick — he could pluck out my stone — eh, Emilia?

Emilia — does your husband Iago have a hoof-pick to match? Miss Desdemona! Thus, as Desdemona emphasizes, in the privacy of their chambers women are allowed to share information which is considered private and to which they would make no reference in the outside world. Such a dialogue would never have been imagined by male writers, as in the traditional myths women were envisioned as silent and incapable of bonding with each other. Such a relationship between women would have proven subversive of male dominance, especially since a dialogue such as the one between Desdemona and Emilia is quite derisive not only of male sexuality, but also of the phallus and thus, of phallic power, which is reduced to a ludicrous aspect characterizing married life.

The changes brought to the traditional story enable the contemporary playwright to provide a voice for the previously silenced female protagonist. Caught in an abusive relationship with her husband, as seen later in the play, Desdemona finds her freedom in two ways: by engaging in random sexual relationships and by playing with language.

Dog piddle! God damn horse urine!!! However, Desdemona places great emphasis on the form of discourse. However can I, the daughter of a senator, live with a washerwoman as fille de chambre? All fashionable Venice will howl.

Thus, language acquires great importance within the social hierarchy, making the difference between those holding the power and the powerless. Nevertheless, if proper diction and an adequate vocabulary are part of the markers of cultural and social habitus, slang and informal language represent a form of liberty that Desdemona is fascinated with.

She uses such language borrowed from Bianca as part of her playing various social roles meant to provide her with a form of escapism from her unhappy marriage. Yet, no matter how much freedom she seems to take in her discourse, Desdemona is silenced by her husband by means of violent behavior.

A pause, and Desdemona returns, closes the door behind her, holding her cheek. She is on the brink of tears. Thus, Paula Vogel revises a traditional myth, allowing the previously silenced female character to present her version of the story.

Although Desdemona suffers the same fate and is still a victim of male dominance, she can express her concerns and enjoy the little freedom her boudoir allows for. References Primary sources: Shakespeare, William, London: J. Lincott Company Vogel, Paula, Stephen Heath. New York: Hill Coupe, Laurence, Elias J. Structural Semantics: An Attempt at a Method, trans. Rivkin, Julie; Michael Ryan eds. Literary Theory: An Anthology. Malden, Mass. Initially, the present study will explore the condition of women in the Chicano community and the complex religious and cultural foundations on which it has been created; the second part will focus on feminist subversions of this condition, based on re-conceptualizations of the popular La Llorona tale.

Perhaps to a greater extent than others, the Mexican culture stands out as one that has particularly endorsed gender based preferential treatment between the sexes, resulting in foregrounding the role of the man — traditionally seen as the cornerstone of society and the sole provider of the household — and diminishing the status of the woman, expected to renounce education and fully dedicate herself to domestic life, where the husband exerts supreme authority.

Financially dependent and frequently brutalized, women have been indoctrinated to act passively and submissively, which resulted in alienation. Emerging from this complex environment, the Chicano culture — a border culture — has inherited certain social, cultural and religious practices that continued to undermine female status and subordinate it to male discourses.

The positioning of women in Chicano society has been established through the conjugated efforts of two sets of factors. The present-day Chicano culture rests on a historical background of recurrent subjugations and aggressive militaristic invasions: initially, the male-ruled Aztec tribes conquered the weaker matriarchal Toltec clans, only to fall, centuries later, under the domination of the Spanish conquistadors.

This insidious deprecation of womanhood in Mexican culture has led to the delineation of the virgin versus whore paradigm, a standard that has been employed to control Mexican and Chicano female behaviour up to the present day.

Three cultural images have attained extensive notoriety: the Virgin of Guadalupe — the patron saint of Mexicans, La Malinche — the Indian whore held accountable for selling out her people to the Spanish — and La Llorona — the negative maternal figure who drowned her children and is consequently doomed to wail eternally. The Virgin and La Malinche are inscribed within the virgin versus whore paradigm and therefore stand for conflicting values.

Whilst the image of the Virgin — extolled and upheld beyond consideration — was employed to instill in women such features as chastity, passivity, humility or selflessness, the figure of La Malinche was used as a counterexample to sanction female agency, rebelliousness and ambition.

The legend refers to an emblematic character who weeps over the death of her children whom she is thought to have killed herself, by drowning Carbonell, 2. Consumed by remorse, she is condemned to wander at night in the proximity of water — lakes, rivers or lagoons — lamenting her sins and looking for redemption. Or, as other versions show, La Llorona becomes a revengeful figure who either seduces men, or murders children and women out of jealousy.

Taken collectively, all these versions corroborate to polarize the character of La Llorona by depicting her both as a disparaging seductress agent and a defiant maternal figure. The myth is based on certain recurrent motifs that have contributed to the creation of a biased image of femininity relentlessly associated with danger and obscurity — the surreal white gown, the incidence of water surfaces — which, by metaphorical transfer, acquire pessimistic undertones — nightfall and darkness.

On the one hand, water represents the setting where the murder is committed and therefore stands for evil, violent and foul enterprise. On the other hand, lakes and rivers represent the sole locations where La Llorona is doomed to expiate her sins, a sort of purgatory site that offers neither salvation nor eternal damnation, but perpetual sorrow.

The temporal coordinates are also of importance in the economy of the tale, as the mythical figure makes her ghastly apparition solely at nighttime, in dim surroundings. Therefore, the myth is time- and space- bound. Under these circumstances, it becomes rather obvious that such accounts perpetuate a discriminatory image of womanhood, associated with obscurity, malevolence and treachery.

The wailing occurred prior to the departure of the men to battle, and it marked the parting moment. The wailing procession has a collective character, as it is performed communally by all the women in the community. She argues that the mourning performed by the Aztec women should not be regarded as a weakness in their nature — a preconception men often attributed to women — but rather as an act of defiance and of ultimate protest.

The protest was directed at the cultural alterations that have resulted in the disruption of the equilibrium between the feminine and the masculine principles that have subsequently lead to the disempowerment of women in society. Wailing becomes the single form of rebellion available to Indian, Mexican and Chicana women when they are left with no other alternative. Consequently, her story operates in the manner of liberating and re-empowering both women and children.

The Ghost Woman is circumscribed to and operates only within the boundaries of the supernatural, fantastic realm of aiding mythical animals, omens of good fortune and ghastly apparitions. Thus, the myth is set against a background of colliding realms. Whereas the village constitutes the familiar, recognizable universe, the domain of the King Ranch and the dim forest represent the unfamiliar, the unsafe and the esoteric.

She represents the one that performs the role of light-bearer and light-caster in the tenebrous nocturnal setting. As such, there can be identified two major sources of light in the narrative: one is the natural light radiated by the moon and the other is the aura that envelops Llorona herself. The moonlight operates as a counterpoint to Llorona as it discloses itself only when she makes her entrance into the scene. Moreover, the legendary figure fosters transformation and marks the pathway to change.

Not only does Llorona modify settings, but she engenders intricate personal, ethical, cultural and spiritual transformations in Prietita, who eventually emerges as a reflective, unwavering and clairvoyant figure. From Aztec times and continuing through Mexican culture, the female side has, however, been denigrated and corrupted.

Prietita attempts to re-affirm and reinstate the female aspect as a positive principle. Therefore, the story unmistakably makes a clear case in favour of Chicana feminism by exclusively portraying potent, benevolent women characters. Fortunately, she benefits from the assistance of two compassionate women — Graciela, a nurse and Felice, her friend — who orchestrate her return home to Mexico. She originally forges a romanticized vision of life across the border, namely the United States, where women live in fancy houses, wear glamorous outfits and have fashionable hairdos.

Hence, man becomes a multiple oppressor — an opponent to overcome, a confining guardian, a higher ranked individual who, by birth, inherited a superior social status. The closing part of the statement alludes to the ingrate fate of the woman, inextricably chained to her spousal partner for life by means of profoundly ingrained cultural inoculations. Unless one counts the neighbor ladies. Soledad on one side, Dolores on the other.

Women have repeatedly been overlooked throughout history and when they have been acknowledged, it was merely to endorse and promote a certain category of values such as dormancy, servitude and submissiveness. Her adaptation of the legend relies on the allegorical interdependencies between two elements: a river — a traditional theme commonly associated with the myth, which Cisneros revives and endows with a highly symbolic name — and the introduction of an indisputable element of originality — Felice, the aiding agent and the contemporary embodiment of La Llorona.

What is more, the inhabitants of the town seem totally dismissive of and uninterested in the provenance of their local toponymy, which suggests a certain level of rupture with their past. However vague, this statement offers insightful information both for elucidating the origin of the toponym and for establishing an explicit connection to La Llorona. The hypothesis according to which the river was named when Indians were the only inhabitants of the area is extremely significant for a number of reasons.

First, it alludes to the tumultuous historical background of Texas, formerly an integral part of Mexico, later annexed by the United States in And second, it suggests that the name dates back from the Pre-Columbian period by invoking the Indian factor, which serves to link this toponym with the legend of La Llorona. Rejecting stereotypical gender representations, she is a resilient person who talks inappropriately — according to formulaic femininity standards — and laughs clamorously.

An autonomous spirit and a financially independent woman, Felice does not have a husband and drives a pick-up car — a vehicle usually associated with manhood and a commodity seldom available to Mexican or Chicana women. Felice holds a key position in the narrative as the one who introduces a third possible interpretation of the Llorona myth: the woman hollers out of rebelliousness, liberation, satisfaction, happiness, thus releasing wild and creative energies.

The easiness with which Felice switches codes — from English to Mexican Spanish and vice-versa — and juggles with conflicting gender identities — the virgin and Tarzan — is revelatory for her mental flexibility Wyatt, She is the one that eventually comes to the realization that returning home constitutes her only chance of survival irrespective of how painful this may prove.

It is with this hidden intention in mind that she secretly saves money for the bus fare to Mexico. Accordingly, her decision to abandon her husband constitutes an act of defiance of male authority and, simultaneously, an exertion of motherly love, through which she desires to protect her children, and ultimately herself. Cisneros juxtaposes the traditional outlook on the legend with her novel and authentic reinterpretation.

The former is presented in connection to the two guarding neighbour ladies, Dolores pain and Soledad solitude, loneliness who stand in stark contrast with the beneficial, potent, transformational characters of Graciela grace and Felice happiness. The exploration will not only consist in analyzing spaces and situations but also the characters who provide the reader with a diversity rarely met in any other novel. The barrio and the Mexican traditions and ways of life are the main focus in the bridging of the two worlds: the American and the Mexican-American one.

Writing is seen as a tool used to express feelings, present situations but also as a way of escaping and redeeming oneself. The House on Mango Street is a Bildungsroman with strong autobiographical accents, as we can associate Cisneros with Esperanza, the leading character of the novel. She moves together with her parents to Chicago just like Cisneros moved from Mexico with her parents and brothers to a Puerto-Rican neighborhood in Chicago, where she spent most of her childhood and dreams of having a house of her own one day.

Consequently, the novel is considered to have a young adult audience as target readers, but according to Maria Gonzales, the critique Cisneros provides of the violent world this child inhabits is clearly meant to educate more than just children — therefore children are beaten, cars are stolen, wives are abused and the narrator is raped.

Cisneros feels it is her duty as a writer to express the sufferings of her community she even dedicates the whole novel to las mujeres , especially of those who suffer from double discrimination being both women and Chicanas. The novel follows her development from a little girl to a young woman and presents every stage in a different vignette.

The family moves to a new house on Mango Street and even if this is an improvement from the previous dwelling, it is not the house Esperanza dreams of, not only because it is small but also because it is situated in a marginal barrio where all the poor families live. Immediately after her moving she makes friends with her neighbors Lucy and Rachel with whom she experiences a lot of new things beginning with buying a bike, learning exciting stories about boys from Marin, an older girl who dreams of getting married, exploring a junk shop and having intimate conversations with them while playing the jumping rope.

Each of these women represents a possible fate for Esperanza if she stays in the barrio. Her decision to go to college and study, just like Alicia, is the only thing that would make her earn her independence, and be different. She does not want to take her place by the window like most married women, including her rebel grandmother, who eventually got tamed by her husband.

From each member of her community she will learn what to become and what not to become. For the most part, Esperanza learns her lessons from las mujeres the women , to whom Cisneros dedicated the collection. I tell them inside my head. According to Maria Gonzales , the acknowledgment that Esperanza can voice her own story makes her able to say goodbye to Mango, but with the promise to return and help others.

If in the beginning Esperanza still enjoys riding a bicycle bought together with her two friends, by the end of the novel the only thing that she desires is to get away from Mango Street, and have a life and a house of her own — just like a writer aware of her need for solitude and distance for creation.

Cisneros was also criticized because all men in her novel are depicted very stereotypically as wife-beaters, overbearing husbands. But how could she have described them differently when the social class from which they belonged encouraged this kind of ill-treatment towards women? The lack of money and of proper jobs make men less respectful to their wives, who do not have jobs and are totally dependent on them, almost prisoners in a marriage in which love and care are replaced by jealousy and violent behavior, spurred by alcohol and a deep sense of frustration.

What he did. Cisneros, Sally is at fault because she let Esperanza all alone with all those boys at the carnival; and also the books and movies are to blame because there love is depicted as a romantic act. One of the three sisters tells her that her wish to leave the neighborhood will come true but that she has to remember to come back for the others. You will always be Esperanza. You will always be Mango Street.

For the ones who cannot leave as easily as you. You will remember? She is different from the others because she is a Chicana, different from the Chicanas because she does not follow the traditional path, yet she will always remember to come back to the barrio, if not physically then at least through her writing.

Maybe the only female character in the novel who refuses to adopt the traditional way and who pursues an university education is Alicia, but she is torn between her will to study and her duty to keep the house clean and to wake up early in the morning to bake tortillas for her father.

The end of the novel finds Esperanza still living on Mango Street, but she is now a mature young woman who has realized that, for the moment, only through writing is she able to escape just a little the world in which she lives. The open ending leaves the reader with the impression that, in the future, Esperanza will be able to leave the barrio to pursue her studies and will return to it only through her writing.

But, for the moment, the new beautiful house she dreams of can be found in the blank pages that she is about to fill with her stories. In the novel it is not only Esperanza who has dreams. Then at her first job she is assaulted and kissed by a man by force. Then, her discovery of her own sensuality and sexuality — the sexual assault — makes her feel angry and enraged. She is hurt because Sally left her all alone and frustrated because everything was exactly the opposite of what she had expected it to be.

The neighborhood in which Esperanza lives seems to be rejected by the outside world because it is considered dangerous — it is only inhabited by Latinos, who feel at home in their barrio. Or maybe it is rejected just because it is different, and people are always afraid of those different from them; what is different always attracts reticence and it may go as far as rejection.

But just as Mango Street is rejected and secluded from the outside world, the same seems to be happening to Esperanza, who gradually separates herself from her community. Even though she takes part in many of the events in the barrio, has a lot of friends, and belongs to a big family with aunts, cousins and grandparents, she seems to be alienated because inside her soul she rejects the barrio, she cannot accept the fact that she lives there, and consequently she dreams of a better life outside it.

Even though the whole barrio can be perceived as a big family, as a community, which follows its norms and laws and has its own cultural and religious practices, each family deals with its own problems differently and separately, without any intervention from the neighbors. And this is precisely what justifies and gives value to her fiction.

Through her writings, the barrio comes to life before our eyes as a special place where the many otherwise invisible, unknown women live, love, suffer, struggle. And from which she gradually separates herself as the different one; different from the different ones. Although for the moment poverty impedes her to leave and fulfill her dreams, she is optimistic about the future and knows that one day she will become independent.

The novel can be considered a Bildungsroman, a novel in which the leading character changes and becomes more mature, even if the events presented cover only one year of her existence. Friendship is occasional and rare, and the reader is left with the feeling that she does not seek friendship or company, but solitude and independence, because she somehow feels it in her heart that she is going to become a writer and stand out of the crowd.

The type of Bildungsroman that Cisneros creates is not a typical one: this novel presents one year in the life of a little girl who wants to be different from all the other women she knows. Refusing to be tamed, to conform to the norms of the barrio and walk on the path to marriage and motherhood, Esperanza seems to begin her journey towards self-awareness and self-affirmation outside the world of the barrio, though never completely forgetting about it or denying its importance in her understanding of the world.

References Cisneros, Sandra, F Their legacy has been embedded in both American and Canadian literature through the presence of Creole and French Canadian elements. It will later compare the background created in these works and the different elements which help build these hetero-images: the level of assimilation into the new culture as well as the level of dislocation of the Creoles and of the French Canadians in these worlds.

Hugh MacLennan was a widely respected Canadian novelist and academic. His works were the first to tackle Canadian themes and he was credited for being the first writer to establish a national literary identity for Canada. It shows the country as a social time bomb waiting to explode into a civil war between the French Canadians and the English Canadians while also in danger of losing its autonomy and national identity. Therefore, the characters and events are seen from a very wide perspective.

She was born and raised in America, from an Irish father and a French mother of French Canadian descent. Chopin lived a great part of her life with her husband and family in Louisiana. This land will be her inspiration as most of her short stories are set here. Louisiana used to be a French territory until the United States purchased it in At that time the Louisiana territory used to stretch from present day New Orleans to the present day Canadian Border.

While telling the story of wealthy Creole families, the short story deals with matters of slavery and racism. In both cases there is a culture historically derived from France, which has experienced changes in one way or another in its process of assimilation. In the case of the French Canadians, MacLennan also shows us a very rich family who is still true to its bonds with France. Therefore what we are shown is the image of a 19th century Creole family and midth century French Canadians.

The foundation for the hetero-images of the Creoles and of the French Canadians in these literary works is the environment in which they are described. They seem to be true to French fashion, as it exerts the power of an arbiter elegantiae for these families. It appears that when it comes to matters of fashion the wealthy and respectable families of Louisiana import everything from France: He ordered the corbeille from Paris, and contained himself with what patience he could until it arrived; then they were married.

However different the historical contexts of these French descendants they all appear as being bound to France culturally and committed to their French legacy. The little cochon de lait! Look at his legs, mamma, and his hands and fingernails,—real finger- nails. There are different reasons why the French Canadian are shown speaking French. Firstly, as there is a great deal of tension due to national identity issues; it is a matter of pride and of stating their ethnicity: I know quite a few French Canadians and I like them.

I always have. But they are too suspicious. MacLennan, 9 In this conversation between Tarnley and Fleury, this tense situation is clearly discussed and Tarnley is implying that, in order to be accepted by the French Canadians, one must speak French. However there are also characters whose speech is not politically involved and they represent a type of French Canadians for whom it is again a matter of dislocation and French serves as one of their connections to their homeland: I remember old Grandfather Provencher with his pipe on an night when there was one of those fabulous Lauretian sunsets and he was looking at it and I came up and sat on the log beside him.

This shows that Chantal could only attribute a French identity to her grandfather. They all express a longing for their homeland, France, which apart from being expressed directly is also demonstrated through their everyday life. For Gabriel Fleury, it seems that even his furniture represents the memories of his life in France and his acknowledgment of dislocation: The wonder was that he had not loved her before; for he had known her since his father brought him home from Paris, a boy of eight, after his mother died there.

It was a sad looking place, which for many years had not known the gentle presence of a mistress, old Monsieur Aubigny having married and buried his wife in France, and she having loved her own land too well ever to leave it. MacLennan, 38 It is shown that they do not completely belong to their new world; in fact, all of the characters at some point go back to France and then return to the North-American continent.

There is also the case when they are simply born in France, move to America but can never fully be assimilated into the culture. Another element playing a role in creating the hetero-images of the Creoles and of the French Canadians is the way in which they view African Americans. In both cases they appear equally intolerant, and appear as considering them less than human. In the end Armand, who up to then was known for battering his slaves, would find out that he himself was an illegitimate son of a black woman, thus Chopin condemns the racism shown by this highly esteemed Louisiana family.

However, the image that remains is that of Creoles that were racist and often cruel to their slaves. There was a funny jungle smell about him too, I thought. MacLennan, 36 In the scene created here by MacLennan, Chantal appears to be very racially prejudiced, comparing a black man to an animal in the jungle.

Accordingly, it seems that these hetero-images created by Chopin and MacLennan through their characters are deeply bigoted, despite the century or society in which they live. In conclusion, the hetero-image of the Creoles in 19th century Louisiana and that of the 20th century French Canadians have a great deal in common.

They are also depicted as at times racist or xenophobic in relation to the different people that they have around. Ultimately it is clear that they show signs of displacement as they seem to not be able to be assimilated, always trying to go back to France, either culturally or physically.

References MacLennan, Hugh, Return of the Sphinx. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada. Chopin, Kate. The great cathedral space which was childhood. Without doubt, these two landscapes shaped the essential basis for what the author would call moments of being, and for which, later, young Virginia Woolf developed a great interest in her writings. Little Virginia Stephen was very attached to her mother and every place in her childhood was teeming with memories of Julia Stephen.

When her mother dies in in London, it is only to be expected that she should connect the city with death and the country with life and joy. The summers spent with her mother in St Ives have a major importance in capturing the 1 22 Hyde Park Gate was later to be the title of an autobiographical essay.

When Talland House is sold, Virginia feels trapped. She hates London, for it took away her beloved mother. Every end is a new beginning. She longs for the city as a wild animal for its prey and its inaccessibility makes it more precious: People say how lucky I am, and how glad I ought to be out of London.

Pippett, We were going to do without table napkins; we were going to paint; to write; to have coffee after dinner instead of tea at nine o-clock. Everything was 2 After a severe mental breakdown in May , Dr. George Savage forbidden her any mental or physical labour and this resulted in an eight months period of enforced exile at the country, staying at some relatives and friends in Nottinghamshire and Yorkshire cf.

Squier, Everything was on trial. How beautiful a London street is then, with its islands of light. The group began as a social clique: a few recent Cambridge graduates and their closest friends would assemble on Thursday nights for drinks and conversation. Its members were committed to a rejection of what they felt were the strictures and taboos of Victorianism on religious, artistic, social, and sexual matters The Columbia Encyclopedia. I also read Chaucer with pleasure; and began a book — the memoirs of Madame de la Fayette — which interested me.

These separate moments of being were however embedded in many more moments of non-being. I have already forgotten what Leonard and I talked about at lunch; and at tea; although it was a good day the goodness was embedded in a kind of nondescript cotton wool.

This is always so. A great part of every day is not lived consciously. One walks, eats, sees things, deals with what has to be done; the broken vacuum cleaner; ordering dinner; writing orders to Mabel; washing; cooking dinner; bookbinding. When it is a bad day the proportion of non-being is much larger. I had a slight temperature last week; almost the whole day was non-being. The real novelist can somehow convey both sorts of being.

Woolf quoted in Urquhart. If she does not seem to remember what she discussed with her husband over tea, calling this a non-being moment, the writer is absolutely aware of another sequence of a day, the walk over Mount Misery. Everything is there: the elements the mount, the river and the willows , the colours soft green, purple and blue. In the same year she starts writing Mrs. Dalloway is set in London, in , a time of incredible flux and change for the city, brought about largely by the recently ended First World War.

It is the moment when we realize that Mrs. Dalloway merges to the city and she becomes part of it, her thoughts interweave with everything happening around her: Such fools we are, she thought, crossing Victoria Street. Woolf, The intensity captured in this single line is breathtaking.

One image leads to another in an unstoppable unique experience and once again the description has a pictorial quality. The devastation and grief caused by the First World War, for example, is not lost in the shuffle cf. Lamont, Foxcroft at the Embassy last night eating her heart out because that nice boy was killed. The sound of an aeroplane bored ominously into the ears of the crowd. There it was coming over the trees, letting out white smoke from behind, which curled and twisted, actually writing something!

Every one looked up. Sim, and the recurrent appearance of Big Ben is proof of that. Out it boomed. First a warning, musical; then the hour, irrevocable. Big Ben interrupts obsessively the linear thoughts of the characters as if it were trying to reestablish reality.

Twelve was the hour of their appointment. Probably, Rezia thought, that was Sir William Bradshaw's house with the grey motor car in front of it. The leaden circles dissolved in the air. They both remain faithful to the city and they trust its power to adjust to changes in such a way that it does not harm but protect its inhabitants.

It perpetually offers moments of joy and when they seem to reach the end another one sprouts up from pseudo-monotony. Outside, the writer feels free not only to ramble, but to be herself. And it does so in such a way that the landscape starts revealing symbolic episodes of city life: a dwarf trying on shoes; the sudden encounter with a hungry, poverty-stricken man and woman; the fantasies spawned by the goods displayed in Oxford Street; the innumerable tales contained on the shelves of a secondhand bookshop; an overheard conversation; the sight of two lovers on a Thames bridge; a quarrel in a stationer's shop in the Strand cf.

A perfunctory slaughter. She feels completely disappointed and she is stunned when Britain declares war: It seems completely meaningless — a perfunctory slaughter, like taking a jar in one hand, a hammer in the other. Why must this be smashed? Nobody knows.

I repeat. How England consoles and warms one. There are moments. However, did London help her conceal her deep pessimism? Was this on the surface something that might almost be indifference? And then came the day of March 28th , when her husband walked through the garden to her lodge to remind her it was lunchtime.

She was just finishing something, she said, and he went back to the house. Five, ten, minutes passed, and she did not come. He went to see what was detaining her. On her table was what she had just been writing: a letter to her sister and a letter to him. He ran through the orchard, across the meadow, to the river. There on the bank he found her hat and her stick.

Many critics have blamed her suicide on the wartime period and interpreted it as the single, possible way of not placing on those who loved her and whom she loved the extra burden of caring for her. Todd, She chose to end her life by drowning in the river Ouse which was such a great inspiration and which she had praised so much.

In fact, all her life, Virginia Woolf enthused about everything surrounding her; she paid a tribute to nature and rural landscapes, most of the times as opposed to London, and by doing that she perpetually illustrated her fight against the darker parts of existence. Look up words and phrases in comprehensive, reliable bilingual dictionaries and search through billions of online translations.

Look up in Linguee Suggest as a translation of "unleaded gasoline" Copy. DeepL Translator Dictionary. Open menu. Translator Translate texts with the world's best machine translation technology, developed by the creators of Linguee.

Dictionary Look up words and phrases in comprehensive, reliable bilingual dictionaries and search through billions of online translations. Blog Press Information Linguee Apps. Translate text Translate files. In addition, removing the derogation would raise safety issues if users were tempted to p u t unleaded p e tr ol rather than avia ti o n gasoline.

Petroleum products include the following products: Motor gasoline leaded and unleaded eur-lex. On the environmental side, the EC proposed timeline for the introduction of the new Euro environmental steps is welcome, however the EESC notes that hybrid technology appears to have been to some extent penalised, with its alignment to diesel limit values, whilst presently used fuel on these vehicle s i s gasoline.

Catalytic reformers specially designed for conversion of desulphur is e d gasoline i n to highoc ta n e gasoline , a nd specially designed components therefore. The risk assessment has, based on the available information, determined that in the European Community the substance is mainly used as a blending component of stan da r d unleaded p e tr ol.

Whereas atmospheric pollution by lead arising from the combustion of leaded petrol constitutes a risk for human health and the environment; whereas it is a great step forward that by virtually all petrol-driven road vehicles will be able to ru n o n unleaded p e tr ol and whereas therefore it is appropriate to restrict severely the marketing of leaded petrol eur-lex.

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